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All the Telugu alphabets are carved out of a circle.
Literary Telugu has complete set of letters which follows scientific system to express sounds. It is highly conducive for Phonetics. It has more letters than any Indian language. Some of them are introduced to express fine shades of difference in sounds.
Telugu has full-Zero or anusvāra( ం ), half-zero or arthanusvāra or Chandrabindu (ఁ) and Visarga to convey various shades of nasal sounds. la and La, ra and Ra are differentiated.
Telugu has CH and JH which are not represented in Sanskrit, and S, SH, and KSH which are not found in Tamil.
Telugu script can reproduce the full range of Sanskrit phonetics without losing any of the text's originality. Telugu has made its letters expressive of all the sounds and hence it has to deal with significant borrowings from Sanskrit, Tamil and Hindustani.
There are various sources available for information on early Telugu writers. Among these are the prologues to their poems, which followed the Sanskrit model by customarily giving a brief description of the writer, a history of the king to whom the book is dedicated, and a chronological list of the books he published. In addition, historical information is available from inscriptions that can be co-related with the poems; there are several grammars, treatises and anthologies that provide illustrative stanzas; and there is also information available from the lives of the poets and the traditions that they followed.
Early Telugu literature is predominantly religious in subject matter. Poets and scholars drew most of their material from, and spent most of their time translating, epics such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata and the Puranas, all of which are considered to be storehouses of Indian culture.
From sixteenth century onwards, rarely known episodes from the Puranas are made basis for kavyas. Literary works drawn from episodes of the Puranas under the name Akhyana or Khanda became popular along with fortunes of single hero under the title of Charitra, Vijaya, Vilasa and Abhyudaya became most common subject matter of poetry.
In eighteenth century, marriages of heroes under the title Parinaya, Kalyana and Vivāha became popular.
Religious literature consisted of biographies of the founders of religion, their teachings (Sara) and commentaries (bhashya).
The sciences such as astrology, law, grammar, ballets, moral aphorisms, devotional psalms are characteristics of most popular literature.
The various forms of literature found in Telugu are:
- Prabandham are stories in verse form with a tight metrical structure and they have three forms
- Prakhyatam (famous story)
- Utpadyam (purely fictional story)
- Misramam (mixed story)
- Kavyam poem which usually begin with a short prayer called a Prarthana, containing initial auspicious letter "Shri" which invokes the blessings of the god. The occasion and circumstances under which the work is undertaken is next stated.
- Padya kāvyam
- Gadya kāvyam
- Kanda Kavyam (short poems)
- Śhatakam (anthology)
- Dasaka (anthology)
Astadiggajas have written in all three of the Prabandham genres during the Prabhanda yugam.
Telugu literature uses a unique expression in verse called Champu, which mixes prose and poetry. Although it is the dominant literary form, there are exceptions: for example, Tikkana composed Uttara Ramayana entirely in verse.
As Champu Kavyas and Prabhandas were beyond the comprehension of masses, new devices for the dissemination of knowledge among the people were developed in the form of the Dvipada and Shataka styles. Dvipada means two feet (couplet) and Shataka means hundred (a cento of verses). (Popular shatakas: Sarveshvara shataka, Kalahastishvara shataka , Dasarathi Shataka)
There are some Shatakas which are divided in to ten groups of ten verses called Dasaka which is adopted from Prakrit.
Avadhanam is a literary performance popular from the very ancient days in Sanskrit and more so in Telugu and Kannada languages. It requires a good memory and tests a person's capability of performing multiple tasks simultaneously. All the tasks are memory intensive and demand an in-depth knowledge of literature, and prosody. The number of Prucchakas can be 8 (ashtavadhanam) or 100 (shathavadhanam) or even 1000 (sahasravadhanam). A person who has successfully performed Ashtavadhanam is called as Ashtavadhani, a shatavadhanam is called a Shatavadhani and sahasravadhanam is called Sahasravadhani.
- Praudha Prabandha or Maha Kavya is considered as highest form of verse. The essentials of such a composition according to the Telugu poetic theory are
- Saili (Style) - the words chosen neither soft nor very musical but dignified (Gambhira), Sweetness (Madhurya), Grace and Delicacy (Sukumara), Fragrance (Saurabhya) and Symphony. In choice of vocabulary, Vulgar language (Gramya) is avoided.
- Ṕaka (Mould) - refers to the embodiment of ideas in language, and the nature and texture of the language employed. There are three types of pakas namely
- Draksha (wine or grape): Draksha is a crystal clear style where everything is seen through a transparent medium. Mostly Nanniah uses this mould.
- Kadali (Plantain): Kadali is complex paka because the soft skin has to peeled in order to reach the core of the subject. Mostly Tikkana uses this mould.
- Narikela (coconut): Narikela is the most difficult mould to employ because one has to break the rind to understand the idea. Vishnu Chittiyam or Krishnadevaraya are cast in this paka.
- Rasa (Sentiment) - Rasa is the heart and soul of any Telugu poetry which follows rule (Sutra), Vakyam Rasathmakam Kavyam. There are nine Rasas, known as the Nava Rasas. A perfect kavya uses all nine of these, namely:
- śṛṅgāra (love)
- Hāsya (Comic)
- Karuṇā (Sympathy)
- Raudram (Horror)
- Bhayānaka (Fear)
- Bībhatsa (Disgust)
- Vīra (Heroic)
- Adbhuta (wonder)
- Shantam (Peace)
- Alamkara (Ornamentation): There are Sabdhalamkaras (ornaments of sound) and Arthalamkaras (ornaments of thoughts). Slsha (double entendre) and Yamaka (alliteration) are Sabdhalamkaras. Upamana (smile) Utpreksha (hyperbole) are Arthalamkaras. We find usage of Alamkaras in description of events, places and proceedings etc.
There is a myth that the pre-Nannaya literature (probably Jain) was deliberately destroyed by the Brahmanical Vaidiki movement. This argument that the Jain literature was destroyed as a consequence of Brahmanical jealousy has no historical confirmation. Even if true, it is not enough to explain the disappearance of an extensive literature without leaving any traces behind. In the period 500-1100 CE, Telugu was confined to the poetic works and flourished in the courts of kings and among scholars. This period also saw the translation of Ganitasara, a mathematical treatise of Mahivaracharya, into Telugu by Pavuluri Mallana. The real development of Telugu was during the period 1100—1600 CE, when the language became stylized and rigid.
Nannaya Bhattarakudu's Andhra Mahabharatamu, who lived around the 11th century, is commonly referred to as the first Telugu literary composition (aadi kaavyam). Although there is evidence of Telugu literature before Nannaya, he is given the epithet Aadi Kavi ("the first poet") because he was the first to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. He established the fundamentals of Telugu writing by both borrowing from Sanskrit grammar and creating original rules for semantics and other constructs. Until his time, Telugu literature was based on Prakrit and lacked grammar. Nannaya completed the first two chapters and a part of the third chapter of the Mahabharata epic, which is rendered in the Champu style.
Nannaya's Andhra Mahabharatamu was almost completed by Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288) who wrote chapters 4 to 18. Yerrapragada, who lived in the 14th century, finished the epic by completing the third chapter. He mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning, slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of Tikkana. These three writers - Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada - are known as the Kavitraya ("three great poets") of Telugu. Other such translations like Marana’s Markandeya Puranam, Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed. Many scientific works, like Ganitasarasangrahamu by Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by Eluganti Peddana, were written in the 12th century.
Sumati Shatakam, which is a neeti ("moral"), is one of the most famous Telugu Shatakams. Shatakam is composed of more than a 100 padyalu (poems). According to many literary critics Sumati Shatakam was composed by Baddena Bhupaludu (CE 1220-1280). He was also known as Bhadra Bhupala. He was a Chola prince and a vassal under the Kakatiya empress Rani Rudrama Devi, and a pupil of Tikkana. If we assume that the Sumati Shatakam was indeed written by Baddena, it would rank as one of the earliest Shatakams in Telugu along with the Vrushadhipa Satakam of Palkuriki Somanatha and the Sarveswara Satakam of Yathavakkula Annamayya. The Sumatee Shatakam is also one of the earliest Telugu works to be translated in to a European language, as C. P. Brown rendered it in English in the 1840s.
Srinadha (1365–1441) popularised the Prabandha style of composition. He was a minister in the court of Pedakomati Vemareddy of Kondaveedu and wrote Salivahana Saptasati, Panditaaradhyacharita, Sivaratri Mahatyam, Harivilasa, Bhimakanda, Kashikhandam, Shringara Naishadham, Palanati Veeracharitra, Dhananjaya Vijayam, Sringaradipika and Kridabhiramam. These works were concerned with history and mythology. Srinatha's Srungara Naishadhamu is a well-known example of the form. Srinatha was widely regarded as the Kavi Sarvabhowma ("the emperor among poets").
Kumaragiri Vema Reddy, popularly known as Vemana, was a 14th century Telugu poet. His poems were written in the popular vernacular of Telugu, and are known for their use of simple language and native idioms. His poems discuss the subjects of Yoga, wisdom and morality. There is no consensus among scholars about the period in which Vemana lived. C.P. Brown, known for his research on Vemana, estimates the year of birth to be the year 1352 based on some of his verses. His poems are four lines in length. The fourth line is, in majority of the cases, the chorus Viswadabhirama Vinura Vema - he thus conveyed his message with three small lines written in a simple vernacular. He traveled widely across south India, acquiring popularity as a poet and Yogi. So high was the regard for Vemana that a popular Telugu saying goes 'Vemana's word is the word of the Vedas'. He is celebrated for his style of Chaatu padyam, a poem with a hidden meaning. Many lines of Vemana's poems are now colloquial phrases of the Telugu language. They end with the signature line Viswadhaabhi Raama, Vinura Vema, literally Beloved of Vishwadha, listen Vema. There are many interpretations of what the last line signifies.
Bammera Potanaamatya (1450–1510) is best known for his translation of the Bhagavata Purana from Sanskrit to Telugu. His work, Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu, is commonly called the Pothana Bhagavatham. He was born into a Niyogi Brahmin family and was considered to be a sahaja Kavi ("natural poet") who needed no teacher. He wrote Bhogini Dandakam a poem praising king Singa Bhoopala’s concubine, Bhogini, while young. This is the earliest available Telugu Dhandaka (a rhapsody which uses the same gana or foot throughout). His second work was Virabhadra Vijayamu which describes the adventures of Virabhadhra, son of Shiva. As a young man, he was a devotee of Shiva but he later followed Rama and was more interested in salvation, from which came the inspiration to translate the Bhagavata Purana.
Tallapaka Annamacharya (or Annamayya) (May 9, 1408 – February 23, 1503) is widely regarded as the Pada-kavita Pitaamaha of the Telugu language. He was born to a Vaidiki Brahmin family and his works are considered to have dominated and influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions. Annamacharya is said to have composed as many as 32,000 sankeertanas (songs) on Bhagwaan Govinda Venkateswara, of which only about 12,000 are available today. His keertana compositions are based on the Vishishtadvaita school of thought. Annamayya was educated in this system of Ramanuja by Sri Sathagopa Yateendra of the Ahobila matham.
Annamacharya's wife, Thimmakka (Tallapaka Tirumalamma), wrote Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu literature. Her main work, Subhadra Kalyanam, which consists of 1170 poems, is about the marriage of Arjuna and Subhadra, who are characters that appear in the Mahabharata. She presented the Telugu nativity and culture in the story taken from Sanskrit epic.
Allasani Peddana (15th and 16th centuries) was ranked as the foremost of the Astadiggajalu the title for the group of eight poets in the court of Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. Peddana was a native of Somandepalli near Anantapur. Allasani Peddana wrote the first major Prabandha and for this reason he is revered as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha ("the grand father of Telugu poetry"). It is believed that he was also a minister in the king's court and is hence sometimes referred as Peddanaamaatya (Peddana + Amaatya = Peddana, the minister). He wrote Swaarochisha Manu Sambhavam (also known as Manu Charitra), which is a development of an episode in the Markandeya Purana relating to the birth of Svarochishamanu, who is one of the fourteen Manus. Pravarakyudu is a pious Brahmin youth who goes to the Himalayas for Tapasya. In the Himalayas Varudhini, a Gandarava girl, falls in love with him, but Pravarakyudu rejects her love. Knowing this a Gandarava youth who was earlier rejected by Varudhini assumes the form of Pravarakyudu and succeeds to win her love. To them is born Svarochisha, the father of Svarochishamanu.The theme for his Manu Charitra is a short story from Markandeya Purana. It is about second Manu of fourteen manus (fathers of mankind societies according to Hindu mythology), translated into Telugu from Sanskrit by Marana (1291–1323), disciple of Tikkana. The original story was around 150 poems and Peddana extended into six chapters with 600 poems by adding fiction and descriptions.
His work was treated as one of the Pancha Kavyas, the five best works in Telugu. Some of his other famous works such as Harikathaasaaramu are untraceable now.
Dhurjati or Dhoorjati (15th and 16th centuries) was a poet in the court of Krishnadevaraya and was one of the Astadiggajalu. He was born to Singamma and Narayana in Sri Kalahasti and was the grandson of Jakkayya. He was a devotee of Shiva, whom his works praise. They include Sri Kalahasteeshwara Mahatyam (The grace/miracles of lord Shiva) and Sri Kalahasteeshwara Shatakam (100+ poems in the praise of lord Shiva). He was known as Pedda Dhurjati ("elder Dhurjati") as there were four other people from the same family line who went by the name of Dhurjati during the same period and after him. His grandson. Venkataraya Dhurjati, wrote Indumati Parinayam ("marriage of Indumati"), a story from Kalidasa's Raghuvamsam. Like other contemporaries of the Prabhanda period, he took themes from Puranas and added local stories and myths in his work. Unlike contemporaries such as Peddana and Mallana, who chose the stories of kings, he chose devotion as his theme. Krishnadevaraya praised Dhurjati, saying "Sthuthimathi yaina Andhrakavi Dhurjati palkulakelagalgeno yethulitha madhuri mahima...."
Similarly Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana and Ayyalaraju Ramabhadrudu rendered great literary works during this period.
Literary activities flourished during the rule of the Vijayanagara dynasty, and the period of Krishnadevaraya's rule in the sixteenth century is considered to be the golden age of Telugu literature. Krishnadevaraya, a poet himself, introduced the Prabandha to Telugu literature. Amukta Malyada. Krishna Deva Raya wrote the book Amuktamalyada in Telugu, describing the pangs of separation suffered by Andal (an incarnation of the goddess Mahalakshmi. He describes Andal’s physical beauty in thirty verses; using descriptions of the spring and the monsoon as metaphors. As elsewhere in Indian poetry, the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine. His court had the Ashtadiggajas ("eight elephants"), who were considered to be the greatest of poets of that time. Some critics dismiss the following period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age. Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth- to mid-nineteenth century, Kankanti Paparaju’s Uttara Ramayana in campu style, and the play Vishnumayavilasa stand out. Other genres bloomed at the same time. Yakshaganas, indigenous dramas of song and prose, were also produced.
Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna, popularly known as Tenali Rama and Vikata Kavi, was another sixteenth century court poet of the Vijayanagara empire and also one of the Ashtadiggajas. His family had originally hailed from Tumuluru near Tenali in Guntur District. Scholars treat his Panduranga Mahatyamu as one among the Pancha Kavyas. He dedicated that to Viruri Vedadri. This book is about the Pundarika Kshetram on the banks of river Bhaimi and its legend. He also composed Udbhataradhya Charitram on the story of Udbhata, a monk, as well as Ghatikachala Mahatyam about Ghatikachalam, a place of worship for God Narasimha near Vellore. He followed the Prabhanda style. He took the theme for Panduranga Mahatyam from the Skanda Purana and enhanced it with many stories about the devotees of God Vitthala (Panduranga). He is noted for brilliance and wit and for mocking other poets and great personalities. He created a celebrated character called Nigama Sarma akka (sister of Nigama Sarma) and a story around her without giving her a name. He also had written many Chatuvu (extempore poems).
Kshetrayya or Kshetragna (c. 1600–1680 CE) was a prolific poet and composer of Carnatic music. He lived in the area of Andhra Pradesh. He composed a number of padams and keertanas, the prevalent formats of his time. He is credited with more than 4000 compositions, although only a handful have survived. He composed his songs on his favourite deity Krishna (Gopala) in Telugu.He perfected the padam format that is still being used today. His padams are sung in dance (Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi) and music recitals. A unique feature of his padams is the practice of singing the anupallavi first then the pallavi (second verse followed by first verse). Most of the padams are of the theme of longing for the coming of the lord Krishna. He wrote with Sringara as a main theme in expressing madhurabhakti (devotion to the supreme). Sringara is a motif where the mundane sexual relationship between a Nayaki (woman) and a Nayaka (man) is used as a metaphor, denoting the yearning of jeeva (usually depicted as the Nayaki) to unite with the divine (usually depicted as the man). In most of his compositions, Kshetrayya has used the mudra (signature) "Muvva Gopala" as a reference to himself, which is also a name for the Lord Krishna in Kshetrayya's village Muvva, now called as Movva.
Kshetrayya's work has played a major role in influencing poetry, dance, music of the South Indian tradition. Kshetrayya was intimately connected with the devadasi women of the temples of south India, who were the subject of many of his compositions. The devadasis were traditionally in possession of the musical/poetic interpretations of his work for a long period of time till the devadasi system was abolished and the compositions became more accepted in the musical community as valuable works of art. The musical community also owes a lot to Veena Dhanammal and T. Brinda, who popularized Kshetrayya's songs with their beautiful musical interpretation. Kshetrayya's padams now form an integral part of the dance and musical traditions of South India, where his songs are rendered purely as musical works or as accompaniments to dance.
Kancherla Gopanna (c 1620 - 1680 CE), popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu, was a 17th century Indian devotee of Rama and a composer of Carnatic music. He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras (same person being the writer and composer of a song) in the Telugu language. His devotional lyrics to Rama are famous in South Indian classical music as Ramadaasu Keertanalu. Even the doyen of South Indian classical music Saint Thyagaraja learned and later improved the style now considered standard krithi form of music composition.He also written Dasarathi Shatakamu a collection of nearly 100 poems dedicated to the son of Dasaratha (Lord Rama).
Tyagaraja (1767–1847) of Tanjore composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the repertoire of Carnatic music.In addition to nearly 600 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam. Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata Purana. Often overlooked is the fact that Tyagaraja's works are some of the best and most beautiful literary expressions in Telugu language. Valmiki composed the Ramayana, the story of Rama, with 24,000 verses and also composed 24,000 kritis in praise of the lord.
Paravasthu Chinnayasuri(1807–1861) wrote Baala Vyaakaranamu in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra Grammar which is his greatest gift to Telugu people. Other notable works of Chinnayasuri include Neeti Chandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola and Neeti Sangrahamu. Chinnayasuri translated Mitra Labham and Mitra Bhedam from the Sanskrit Panchatantra as Neeti Chandrika. Kandukuri Veeresalingam and Kokkonda Venkataratnam followed his style of prose writing and wrote Vigrahamu and Sandhi in a different pattern.
Modern or Adhunika Sahityame
Kandukuri Veeresalingam, (16 April 1848 - 27 May 1919) was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was born in an orthodox Andhra Brahmin family. He is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu people and Telugu literature. He was influenced by the ideals of Brahmo Samaj particularly those of Keshub Chunder Sen. Veeresalingam panthulu is popularly called Gadhya Thikkana. He wrote about 100 books between 1869 and 1919 and introduced the essay, biography, autobiography and the novel into Telugu literature His Satyavathi Charitam was the first social novel in Telugu. He wrote Rajasekhara Charitamu inspired by Oliver Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefied. To him literature was an instrument to fight social evils.
Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna pronunciation (help·info) (born July 6, 1930) is a Carnatic vocalist, multi-instrumentalist and a playback singer. He is also acclaimed as a poet, composer and respected for his knowledge of Carnatic Music. Balamuralikrishna was born in Sankaraguptam, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh state. Dr Balamuralikrishna has composed over 400 compositions in various languages like Telugu and Sanskrit. His compositions ranges from Devotional to Varnams, Kirthis, Javalis and Thillans. His greatest achievement are the compositions in all the fundamental 72 melakartha ragas.
Aacharya Aatreya or Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu pronunciation (7 May 1921 - 13 September 1989) was a playwright, lyrics and story writer of the Telugu film industry. He was born as Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu on 7 May 1921 in the Mangalampadu village of Sullurpeta Mandalam in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. His pen name is based on their family Gothra. Known for his poetry on the human soul and heart, he was given the title 'Manasu Kavi'(Poet of Heart). His poetry is philosophical and intellectually satisfying.
The general economic prosperity of the delta region afforded the establishment of schools and colleges, resulted in the spread of education and produced a western educated middle class. This was also coincided with the founding of various socio-religious organizations in the region like Veda Samaj, Deva Samaj, Hindu Sreyobhivardini Sabha and Arsha Mata Sabha (the influence of ongoing socio-religious reform movements in Bengal and Maharastra and the tours of these reformers to South India can be seen in this development). Madras centered Telugu press (originated in 1830s) began to shift to the delta region as the founders of these organizations (most of them were from western educated middle class, who were also founders of socio-religious organizations) attempted to spread the reformist ideas through the press. (Absence of these factors attests the very slow development of press in the dry zone). Thus there was a steady growth of journalism in the deltas from 1858 onwards.
Telugu journalism began with mainly religious, cultural and literary journals. The first Telugu journal was Satyodaya (Dawn of Truth) published in Madras by the Christian Association of Bellary. The early Telugu journals were in Sanskritised, highbrow literary Telugu. Some of them like Tatvabodhini, were started by the Ved Samaj to counteract missionary propaganda. Tatwabodhini became immensely popular after it serialized the Rig Veda. Other journals of this era are Ravi, Shriyakshi, Dina Vartamani and Purusharda Pradayani.
Rai Bahadur K. Veeresalingam Pantulu began the first modern journal in Telugu- Vivekavardhini- dedicated to social and language reform. Pantulu was a prominent social reformer who advocated ending of child marriage, casteism, prostitution. He also propagated rehabilitation of fallen women. Pantulu’s journals are credited with the development of popular Telugu prose. Pantulu also founded 3 journals for women- Sahitabodhini (Women’s Advocate), Haasyavardhini (Promoter of Laughter) and Satyavaadini (Advocate of Truth). Pantulu is considered to be the father of the Renaissance movement of Andhra.
Rajamundry, Cocanada, Bezawada, Machilipatnam, Amalapuram, Narasapuram became centers of journalism. Another early paper was Andhrabhasha Sanjivani, edited by Venkataram Pantulu, another social and religious reformer. The first news weekly in Telugu was Andhra Prakasika, published from Madras by A.P. Parthasarati Naidu. It supported the Congress Party.
Devagupta Seshachalrao started Deshabhimani- first as a fortnightly, then weekly, then bi-weekly and finally it became the first Telugu daily.
With this, foundations for the social and political leadership of delta area and dominance of coastal Telugu were laid. By early twentieth century every caste tried to reform its group by spreading progressive and rational ideas through caste journals. In the process, several caste groups got consolidated across the regions.
In the rise of consciousness of a separate Telugu identity and the demand for a separate Andhra State, Telugu press played a crucial role. Rising education brought about a new interest in modern Telugu literature and culture, which Telugus felt, was being suppressed by Tamilians. Therefore Andhra Brahmans and non-Brahmans together formed a sub-national movement to demand a separate State in which Andhra interests could be expressed.The organization of people on caste lines was also a new phenomenon and print was one of the factors which made it is possible. Thus the print, in the form of Journalism played an enormous role in the construction of identities on the basis of language, region, religion, and caste.
Telugu journalism abroad
The Telugu literature and journalism is also very popular outside India. One of the major centers of Telugu community literature is found in United States. The first generation of immigrants are the pioneers in this field. Two people that needs to be commented is Dr Jampala Chowdhary for publishing Telugu Naadi magazine and Vanguri Chitten Raju for publishing books and conducting annual short story and poem contest for promoting Telugu literature and journalism.