Epistemic Paradoxes

The four primary epistemic paradoxes are the lottery, preface, knowability, and surprise examinationparadoxes. The lottery paradox begins by imagining a fair lottery with a thousand tickets in it. Each ticket is so unlikely to win that we are justified in believing that it will lose. So we can infer that no ticket will win. Yet we know that some ticket will win. In the preface paradox, authors are justified in believing everything in their books.

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