On Indus Civilization, Aryans, Ancient Indian History and Archeology: A Bibliography

by Linda Hess
Citation
BIBLIOGRAPHY TITLE
On Indus Civilization, Aryans, Ancient Indian History and Archeology: A Bibliography
CONTRIBUTOR NAME
Linda Hess
CONTRIBUTOR EMAIL
CONTRIBUTOR INSTITUTION
SOURCE
RISA
SOURCE URL
http://www.montclair.edu/RISA/biblio/b-iaryan.txt
Description

Compiled from fall 1996 discussion on RISA-L, electronic discussion list for the American Academy of Religion's Religion in South Asia Section. Some comments from the List discussion are included.  (Last update: 12-2-96)

  • Allchin, Bridget and Raymond Allchin.  The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1982.

  • Allchin, B., F.R. Allchin, B.K. Thapar, editors. Conservation of the Indian heritage. New Delhi, India: Cosmo Publications, 1989.

  • Allchin, F. Raymond. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: the emergence of cities and states, with contributions from George Erdosy ... [et al.].  Cambridge: New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University Press, 1995.

  • Allchin, F.R.  See also Possehl 1995.      

  • Balmuth, Miriam "Searching for the Origins of Indo-European Languages" in Journal of Interdisciplinary History 20 (1989) pp, 257-62.

  • Converse, H. S. "The Agnicayana Rite: Indigenous Origin?" in History of Religions IV.2 (Nov. 1974), pp.81-95.          

  • Good for introducing the kind of thinking that has to be done with the archeological data at hand [Dennis Hudson].

  • Crossland, Ronald,  "When specialists collide: archaeology and Indo-European linguistics" in Antiquity 66 (1992) pp. 251-54.

  • Deo, S, B & Kamath Surynath eds, 'The Aryan Problem' Pune: Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, 1993.          

  • If nothing else, this publication gives an idea of how widespread the reconsideration of the external origin of the Aryans has become in India. [E. Bryant]

  • Deshpande, Madhav M. and Peter Edwin Hook, eds.  Aryan and non-Aryan in India.  Ann Arbor:  Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, 1979.  Michigan papers on South and SE Asia; no. 14.

  • Dyson, Robert.  See Possehl 1995.

  • Elizarenkova, Tatyana J, ed.  Language and style of the Vedic Rsis, with an introduction by Wendy Doniger. Albany : State University of New York, 1995.I have my doubts about the usefulness of the archaeological record in general when it comes to things Vedic (cf. refs to Rau and Elizarenkova). [G. Thompson]

  • Erdosy, George ed., The Indo-Aryans of Ancient south Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity (Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 1995).  articles by Erdosy, K.A. R. Kennedy, M. Deshpande, M. Witzel, J. Shaffer.

  • Erdosy, George. Urbanisation in early historic India (Oxford, B.A.R., 1988).

  • Feuerstein,  Georg, Subhash Kak, and David Frawley.  In Search of the Cradle of Civilization. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books, 1995.   Also in short form, "In Search of the Cradle of Civilization: New Light on Ancient India," article in recent Yoga Journal.

  • Flood, Gavin.  An Introduction to Hinduism.  Cambridge University Press, 1996.  [P. Olivelle says best intro currently available, and pays sensitive attention to the Aryan/IVC question as well as modern issues.]

  • Frawley, David.  Gods, Sages and Kings.  Salt Lake City: Passage Press, 1991; New Delhi: Voice of India, 1993.

  • Frawley, David. "On the Banks of the Saraswati: The ancient history of India revised." The Quest, Autumn 1992, 22-30.

  • Uses evidence of the Saraswati river and astronomical data from the Vedas to prove that Aryans have been in India forever, well at least 7500 BCE. [V. Narayanan]

  • Frawley, David. The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India. New Delhi: Voice of India, 1994.  More Frawley: Hinduism Today, Dec. 1994 vol. 16/no. 12. Summarizes Kak, Frawley and others; gives timeline paying special attention to astronomical details. Hinduism Today,  Nov. 1991 "Invasion or Indigenous?" [V. Narayanan]  

  • Frawley, David with N.S.Rajaram. Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization. New Delhi: Voice of India, 1996.

  • Frawley, David.  See also co-authored work under Feuerstein.

  • Garrett, Andrew.  "Indo-European reconstruction and historical methodologies" in Language 67 (1991) pp. 790-804.

  • Gila-Kochanowski, Vania de. Aryan and Indo-Aryan migrations/ tr. by L. Regnier in Diogenes v. 149 (Spring, 1990) pp. 122-45

  • Gupta, S. P.  Archaeology of Soviet Central Asia and the Indian borderlands.  foreword, V. A. Ranov. Delhi : B.R. Pub. Corp.; New Delhi : D.K. Publishers' Distributors,1979.2 v.

  • Gupta, S. P.  The Indus-Saraswati Civilization.  Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan, 1996.

  • Kak, S.C.  A frequency analysis of the Indus script.  Cryptologia,  vol. 12, 1988, 129-43.

  • Kak, S.C.  The Astronomical Code of the Rigveda.  Puratattva: Bulletin of the Indian Archaeological Society, Number 25, 1994/5, 1-20.

  • Kak, S.C.  On the classification of Indic languages. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, vol. 75, 1994, pp. 185-195.

  • Kak, S.C.  The astronomy of the age of geometric altars. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 36,  1995, pp. 385-396.

  • Kak, S.C.  An Indus-Sarasvati signboard. Cryptologia, vol. 20, 1996, pp. 275-279.

  • Kak, S.C.  See also co-authored work under Feuerstein. 

  • Lal, B.B. & Gupta S.P, eds.  Frontiers of the Indus Civilization. New Delhi: Books and Books, 1984. Includes Lal's "Some Reflections on the Structural Remains at Kalibangan."

  • Lal, B.B.  See also Possehl 1995.

  • Lochtefeld, Jim.  A very interesting article on Hindutva in the Spring (96?) issue of the journal RELIGION. 

  • Lukacs, John ed.  The People of South Asia.  N.Y & London: Plenum Press, 1984.  Includes article by J. Shaffer.

  • Menon, Shanti.  "Archeology Watch: Chariot Racers of the Steppes."  Discover, April 1995, short and magazine-style readable. (No page numbers in my copy.)  Features the research of David Anthony, archeologist from Hartwick College, NY. [V. Narayanan]

  • Misra, S.S. The Aryan problem, a linguistic approach.  N. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1992.

  • Misra, S.S.  The Avestan : a historical and comparative grammar.1st ed.  Varanasi : Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1979. Chaukhambha oriental research studies; no. 13.

  • Misra, S.S.  A comparative grammar of Sanskrit, Greek and Hittite. With a foreword by Suniti Kumar Chatterji.  Calcutta, World Press, 1968.

  • Misra, S.S.  The laryngeal theory : a critical evaluation / Satya Swarup Misra.  1st ed.  Varanasi : Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1977.

  • Misra, S.S.  New lights on Indo-European comparative Varanasi: Manisha Prakashan, 1975. Manisha oriental research series ; no. 1.

  • Misra, S.S.  The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative.  Varanasi : Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan, 1991-1993.

  • Misra, S.S.  Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology.

  • Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan, 1980.

  • Mitchiner, John E. Studies in the Indus Valley Inscription.  New Delhi:  Oxford, 1978.

  • Nayak, B.U. and N.C. Ghosh, eds.  New Trends in Indian Art and Archaeology. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan 1992.

  • Pal, Yash, et al.  "Remote Sensing of the 'Lost' Sarasvati," in B.B. Lal & S.P. Gupta, Frontiers of the Indus Civilization. 

  • Parpola, Asko.  Prof. Parpola sent a list of his important works for this bibliography, with comments:

  • Parpola, Asko, 1988. The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the Dasas. Studia Orientalia 64: 195-302. Helsinki. (This paper was reprinted, without my permission and in fact against my express wish to the contrary, in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, without mentioning the original place of publication and with unindicated deletions.) This paper is now partially antiquated, as my views have been evolving with new evidence and continued deliberation. Successive revisions which however do not repeat much material of the above article that I still subscribe to are:

  • Parpola, Asko, 1993. Margiana and the Aryan problem. Information Bulletin of the International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia 19: 41-62. Moscow.

  • Parpola, Asko, 1994.  Deciphering the Indus Script. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 142-159 =3D chapters 8.4 The coming of the Aryans, and 8.5 The horse argument.

  • Parpola, Asko, 1995. The problem of the Aryans and the Soma: The archaeological evidence. Pp. 353-381 in: George Erdosy (ed.), The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. 

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. Formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European. In: Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds.), Language and Archaeology, vol. 3: Combining archaeological and linguistic aspects of the past. London: Routledge. (Paper read at World Archaeological Congress 3, New Delhi, 4-11 December 1994.)

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. The Aryan languages and archaeology, with an excursus on Botaj. In: Bridget and Raymond Allchin (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1995. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company. (Paper read at the conference on South Asian Archaeology held at the University of Cambridge, England, in July 1995.)

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. (I do not have the exact title at hand.)  To appear in: The Journal of Indo-European studies. (Paper read at the symposium on Bronze and Iron Age peoples of eastern Central Asia organized by Victor H. Mair, University of Pennsylvania, 19-21 April 1996.)

  • (Following are other works of Prof. Parpola from RISA-L discussion or from library catalogs.  He has been publishing on Indus civ. and script as well as Aryans and other aspects of ancient Indian history/archeology for about 30 years.  Pre-1985 publications are not included here.)

  • Parpola, Asko, ed.   Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe. International Conference (12th : 1993 : Helsinski, Finland) South Asian Archaeology, 1993 : proceedings.  Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, c1994.

  • Parpola, Asko & Jagat Pati Joshi, eds., with the assistance of Erja Lahdenpera and Virpi Hameen-Anttila.  Corpus of Indus seals and inscriptions.  Helsinki : Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1987-<1991>  Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India ; no. 86. Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian toimituksia. Sarja B ; nide 239,

  • Parpola, Asko. Deciphering the Indus script.  New York, NY : Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

  • Parpola, Asko. The sky-garment : a study of the Harappan religion and its relation to the Mesopotamian and later Indian religions / by Asko Parpola.  Helsinki : Societas Orientalis Fennica, 1985.Series title:  Studia  Orientalia 57.

  • Parpola, Asko & Bent Smidt Hansen, eds.  South Asian religion and society. London : Curzon Press ; Riverdale, MD : Riverdale Co., 1986.

  • Possehl, Gregory, ed. "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective" 2nd rev. ed. (New Delhi : American Institute of Indian Studies and Oxford & IBH Pub. Co. c1993)

  • Includes:  Allchin,"The Legacy of the Indus Civilization"; B.B. Lal, "West was West and East was East, but When and How did the Twain Meet?"; Robert Dyson, "Paradigm Changes in the Study of the Indus Civilization"; Jim Shaffer, "Harappan Culture: A Reconsideration"

  • Possehl, Gregory.  1996 book on Indus script, exact title not at hand. Univ.of Penn. Press. 

  • S.R. Rao.   Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilization.  N. Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 1991. 

  • S.R. Rao.   Lothal and the Indus Civilization. Bombay: Asia Publishing, 1973.

  • Rau, Wilhelm.  A whole bunch of stuff in German. I have my doubts about the usefulness of the archaeological record in general when it comes to things Vedic (cf. refs to Rau and Elizarenkova). [G. Thompson]

  • Renfrew, Colin.  " Origins of Indo-European Language." Scientific American, Oct. '89, 106-14.

  • Renfrew, Colin. Approaches to social archaeology.  Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1984.

  • Renfrew, Colin.  Archaeology and language : the puzzle of Indo-European origins London : J. Cape, 1987. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1988

  • Saussure, Ferdinand de. PhD diss.:  "Memoire sur le systeme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-europeenes" [Paris: Vieweg, 1887; reprinted 1879]

  • It has been excerpted [very briefly] and translated into English by WinfredP. Lehmann in his "A Reader in Nineteenth-Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics" [Indiana Univ. Press, 1967].

  • A lucid and accessible discussion of it [with a refreshingly  biographical touch] can be found in Emile Benveniste: "Problems in General  Linguistics" [eng transl. publ. by Univ. of Miami Press, 1971].  Chapter  Three: "Saussure after Half a Century".

  • It might also be interesting for Indologists in general to consult Hans Heinrich Hock's "Principles of Historical Linguistics" [Mouton de Gruyter, 1986], where a fairly extensive and more technical discussion is offered.

  • The migration model has been generated by principles that really work. Admittedly, the model is hypothetical.  It exists in that land alluded to by Laurie, to the east of the asterisk.  But think of in 1879 applying these principles and concluding that there *had* to be a "coefficient sonantique", attested in no known language, but necessary nevertheless in order to explain IE ablaut.  Of course, a generation later Hittite was discovered, and -- guess what -- laryngeals were *right there* where Saussure thought that the coefficient sonantique should have been. In his skillful hands the principles worked [G. Thompson]

  • Seidenberg, A. "The Ritual Origin of Geometry" in Archive for Exact Science, vol. 1.1, 1960, pp. 488-527.

  • Seidenberg, A.  "The Origin of Mathematics," in Archive for Exact Science, vol. 18, 1978, pp. 301-42.

  • Sethna, K.D. 'The Problem of Aryan Origins (from an Indian Point of View) Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 1992.

  • This 1992 ed (as opposed to the 1980 one), has a 200 pg. supplement which meticulously critiques Asko Parpola's speculations on the coming of the Aryans into India.  Sethna's book is generally well written and provocative.  It is also free from Nationalistic undertones.  [E. Bryant]

  • Shaffer, James.  See Erdosy 1995, Possehl 1995, Lukacs 1984.

  • Sharma, G.K. "the horse was buried under the dunes of..." in Puratattva no. 23, 1922-3 pp 30-34   "a poignant article with a few ref's" [E. Bryant].

  • Singh, Bhagavan . The Vedic Harappans.  New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 1995.

  • Is the Rig so nomadic?  What do we do about ref's to thousand pillared houses, thousand doored houses, pillars of copper covered with gold, purs made of stone (asanmaya), and of plaster? (dehya) which are prthvi, bahula and urvi.  What about ships with a hundred oars and the numerous references to boats and maritime trade?  What about the oceanic imagery in cosmology and other cosmic references? Is this compatible with a nomadic tribesmen who had never seen the ocean? I will defer to G. on this, for the time being, but would be curious as to his (or anyone's) opinion on a book recently published called 'The Vedic Harappans' by Bhagavan Singh, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 1995.  It seems that if we look for nomadic Aryans in the Rig, we will come away with a nomadic reading of the text.   Singh, at least, has not shared those assumptions. Extracting all the words from the Rig dealing with material culture (which result in sizeable lists) his reading  is of a culture fully aware of urbanity and pastoralism simultaneously--just like India today.  I haven't had time to check all his references yet, so I cannot give an informed opinion as to his accuracy.  [E. Bryant] 

  • Talageri, Shrikant. Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism. New Delhi: Voice of India, 1993.

  • Talageri is explicitly of the Hindutva camp, and the first part of his book can be critiqued accordingly.  The rest of his work, though, reveals a very keen mind examining the 'evidence' upon which the Aryan invasion theory was put together and merits a response in kind (he is at his worst, I should note, when he tries to propose Maharashtra as the IE homeland).  [E. Bryant]

  • Talbot, Cynthia. "History, Ethnicity, and Identity: Who is Indian?" paper presented at Univ of Texas South Asia Seminar, March 28, 1996.  Abstract (and maybe the rest by now?) is on the U of Texas Asian Studies website.                

  • I would echo Talbot's words: "Rather than summarily dismissing the revisionist historiography [concerned with the medieval Hindu-Muslim encounter and the question of India's protohistory]...I urge professional historians to seize this opportunity to ressess the premises of the standard historiography." [Leslie Orr]

  • Thapar, Romila.  From Lineage To State.  New Delhi, 1984.

  • I spent several weeks last spring reading through all the Arya controversy literature that I could lay my hands on--including all the titles specified thus far in your mailings.  I think that Romila Thapar has done the best job so far of sifting through the evidence.  [Nancy Falk]

  • Thapar, Romila.  Interpreting Early India  (Delhi:  Oxford University Press, 1993). 

  • Nancyadds an important point about Thapar, and she reminds me that I have found Thapar's work actually quite good for pedagogical purposes on this issue.  I have assigned Thapar's essay, "Imagined Religious Communities?" and "Ideology and the Interpretation of Early Indian History" in a collection of her essays, **Interpreting Early India** (Delhi:  Oxford University Press, 1993), at the END of classes on early Indian religious history.  These two essays in particular are quite helpful because they do present some of the counter-evidence in some simple, straightforward ways. They raise the issue of identifying race with language, BOTH in terms of Orientalist and communalist historiographies of Aryan identities.  For that sort of even-handedness it is quite helpful in classes.  And she agrees with Dyson in questioning the usefulness of the invasion hypthesis, but for political, not archaeological, reasons.  She argues in **From Lineage to State** (New Delhi, 1984) that there is a kind of symbiotic relationship between Aryan and non-Aryan, with an adoption of vocabulary, linguistic structures, technologies and religious practices in a bi-lingual situation.

  • But I would argue for assigning these essays by Thapar at the end of a class, or a section on this material, not at the beginning.  The essays expect a lot of historiographical sophistication--sometimes problematic for the beginning student. Much of the intriguing points she makes would NOT be lost on the student who is a little more familiar with issues of representing India, etc.  [Laurie Patton]

  • Thappar, B.K. "Kalibangan: A Harappan Metropolis beyond the Indus Valley"  in Expedition,17.2 (1975) 19-33.

  • I was unable to recognize the fire altars that he depicted.  I tried without success to obtain further photos from him, and to my knowledge he has not published any more on the subject. What he did publish did not resemble (at least not very easily) any Vedic fire altars that could be recognized from the 'Srautasuutras. Nevertheless, it is possible, if not likely, that he is correct. [Fred Smith]

  • On horse controversy (from larger discussion), E. Bryant: I mentioned  previously that, due to the politicization of this whole issue. . .  a  Hungarian horse bone specialist was called in to examine the specimens in  Surkotada.  He confirmed that they were equus caballus Linn.  I would have  to add, now, that a prominent archaeologist (who asked to remain unnamed on  the list) informed me yesterday that this identifi-cation has been rejected  by Meadows.  I'll have to hunt down the article.  Of course, one would have  to allow the Hungarian specialist, Sandor Bokonyi, to defend his  identification, but I had not been aware of any controversy on these  particular findings, at least, which there now evidently is.

Additions to "Aryan Controversy" Bibliography

Submitted by Asko Parpola, 21 Nov 1996

[The following bibliography was submitted by Prof. Parpola, who reviewed the RISA-L discussion and bibliography on the Aryan migration controversy  and reported that many of the references to his publications "are at best marginal as far as this topic is concerned, while many of the most important publications in this field are missing."   L. Nelson]

  • Parpola, Asko, 1988. The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the D�sas. Studia Orientalia 64: 195-302. Helsinki. (This paper was reprinted, without my permission and in fact against my express wish to the contrary, in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, without mentioning the original place of publication and with unindicated deletions.)

  • This paper is nowpartially antiquated, as my views have been evolving with new evidence and continued deliberation. Successive revisions which however do not repeat much material of the above article that I still subscribe to are:

  • Parpola, Asko, 1993. Margiana and the Aryan problem. Information Bulletin of the International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia 19: 41-62. Moscow.

  • Parpola, Asko, 1994. Deciphering the Indus Script. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 142-159 = chapters 8.4 The coming of the Aryans, and 8.5 The horse argument.

  • Parpola, Asko, 1995. The problem of the Aryans and the Soma: The archaeological evidence. Pp. 353-381 in: George Erdosy (ed.), The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity, (Indian Philology and South Asian Studies, 1), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. Formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European. In: Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds.), Language and Archaeology, vol. 3: Combining archaeological and linguistic aspects of the past. London: Routledge. (Paper read at World Archaeological Congress 3, New Delhi, 4-11 December 1994.)

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. The Aryan languages and archaeology, with an excursus on Botaj. In: Bridget and Raymond Allchin (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1995. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company. (Paper read at the conference on South Asian Archaeology held at the University of Cambridge, England, in July 1995.)

  • Parpola, Asko, in press. (I do not have the exact title at hand.) To appear in: The Journal of Indo-European studies. (Paper read at the symposium on Bronze and Iron Age peoples of eastern Central Asia organized by Victor H. Mair, University of Pennsylvania, 19-21 April 1996.)

Comments
  • Recommend Us