Text and Image: Representation in Grimmelshausen's Continuatio

by Richard E. Schade
Text and Image: Representation in Grimmelshausen's Continuatio
Richard E. Schade
The German Quarterly
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RICHARDE. SCHADE University of Cincinnati

Text and Image: Representation in Grimmelshausen's

Continua tio

The ten-year old Simplicissimus was- by his own admission- "so perfect und vollkom- men in der Unwissenheit / da13 mir unmiiglich war zu wissen / da13 ich so gar nichts wuste"

(12:8) and it fell to the Einsiedler to educate the boy. By the ninth chapter Simplicius has been transformed "au13 einer Bestia zu einem Christenmenschen" (62 f.), from a condition of instinctual existence to one founded on be- lief; in the tenth chapter he is confronted for the first time by a Biblical image: "Ich gab Achtung auff das Buch / und nachdem er [der Einsiedler] solches beygelegt / machte ich mich darhinder / schlugs auff / und bekam im ersten Griff das erste Kapitel dell Hiobs 1 und die davor stehende Figur / so ein feiner Holz- schnitt . . . in die Augen" (30:20 ff.). That the Job woodcut illustration is of special signifi- cance to the boy who had only recently es- caped the terrible conflagration of his home and the loss of his kin goes without saying, for the early modern illustrations typically focus on the details of drastic destruction at- tending Job's tribulation (Biblia 916; Job 1: 13-19). So meaningful is the graphic to Sim- plicius (who had just observed the hermit reading to himself) that he initiates a conver- sation with the printed page. When it refuses to reply, Simplicius dashes off to fill a bucket with water in order to extinguish the fire de- picted by the print. The hermit prevents the boy from dousing the book, explaining "diese Bilder leben nicht 1 sie seynd nur gemacht 1 uns vorlangst geschehene Dinge vor Augen zu stellen" (31: 7 ff. ). Simplicius remains con- fused: "[Dlu hast ja erst mit ihnen geredt / warumb wolten sie dann nicht leben?" (31:9 f.); his question elicits the Einsiedler's patient reply: "Liebes Kind / diese Bilder konnen nicht reden / was aber ihr Thun und Wesen sey / kan ich au13 diesen schwartzen Linien sehen / welches man lesen nennet" (31: 12 f. ). By the end of the chapter Simplicius is instructed in reading and writing, the single most important step away from his erstwhile state of "perfect ignorance" toward a consurn- mate ability as his own biographer.

What is of interest in the novel's brief episode is that the actual author of the pro- tagonist's autobiography, Grimmelshausen, presents this most crucial event in Simplicius's education through reference to the interaction between word and picture, between verbal and visual signs. The graphic hes of the image "speak" to Simplicius to the extent that they reflect his historical condition as a latter- day Job, yet they remain truly insigmficant until augmented by words. As powerful an effect as the image may exert, its implications are likely to be misapprehended unless accom- panied by words. For Grimmelshausen the literary representation of reality asserts a cer- tain primacy over its graphic depiction, whlle it does not cancel out the cognitive enrichment imparted to the literary text by reference to pertinent visual images. Indeed, it is a com- mon tactic of Grimmelshausen to describe a person or locale in some detail, only to con- clude with an explicit reference to iconog- raphy; the reader is often asked to draw on some innate familiarity with iconographic im- ages in order to supplement descriptive liter- ary statement. An acute sensitivity to the symbiotic relationship between text and image

The German Quarterly 64.2 (1991) 138


Grimmelshausen's Contznuatio

is thus central to any interpretation of the works of Grimmelshausen. By way of docu- menting the interpretive potential inherent in Grimrnelshausen's creative strategies, atten- tion now turns to the events of the sixth book of Simplicissimus: the Continuatio.

When in the Continuatio the reader finally sees the protagonist as others see him, the hermit Simplicius is likened to the anchorite St. Onophrius (580). The allusion comes as no surprise, for Simplicius's decision to be- come a pilgrim had been motivated by a read- ing of the vita of the eremitic St. Alexius (580; Attwater 39 f.). After wandering across the face of Europe and on toward Jerusalem (5441, he is captured and paraded as a wdd man

(547) until he escapes and makes his goal "S. Jacob zu Compostel" (550). The decision to journey to the holy relics of the apostle St. James in Spain (Attwater 182) allies Simplicius with every other Christian pilgrim of his time. The shipwreck off the African coast in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope (5511, how- ever, prevents the realization of his dream, and he hunself becomes by stages a latterday anchorite saint on an island far from the mortal sins of the European continent (584).

The shipwreck itself is a dramatic event fraught with meaningful overtones. The craft initially skirts the East African coast on a favor- able wind ("segelten auch . . . so gliicklich da- hin" [551]) until a storm arises "also dal3 wir auch die Masst abhauen und das Schiff dem Wlllen und Gewalt der Wellen lassen musten" (551). With nautical imagery reminiscent of the storm on the Sea of Galilee (Matthew 8:23-27; see also Psalm 107) or of seventeenth-century literary images Uons 191-203; Ries 775 f. ), even the most prayerful passen- gers perish at sea. Only Simplicius and the ship's carpenter, Simon Meron (not to be con- fused with his carpenter namesake Simon Peter) survive. They drift helplessly "gegen Terram Australem incognitam" (551) until landfall is made on a tropical island (fig. 1) characterized, above all, by its pleasant frag-

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Fig. 1. Simplicissimus, Dutch Sea Captain and Sailors on the Kreuzinsel. Sestendrup, with permission.

rance rein lieblicher Geruch" [552]), by nu- merous tame birds, and by luxuriant tropical growth: "[Wlir fanden Citronen I Pomerantzen I und Coquos . . . und als die Sonne auff- gienge I kamen wir auff eine Ebne I welche iiberall mit Palmen (davon man den Vin & Palm hat) bewachsen war" (553).

Grimmelshausen scholars have clarified the backgrounds to both location and descrip- tion of the island, emphasizing the consciously fictive quality of the realm. Even those only slightly familiar with the nature of the early modern imagination recognize that Simplicius's paradise island (555) and Schlaraffen- land of the Golden Age (558, 564) is a fictive locus of steadfast virtue surrounded by the


tempestuous forces of unpredictable misfor- tune, as is apparent from the emblematic im- agery of islands (Schone 135 f. ).

That Simplicius lands on the island at this late stage in his life is not coincidental. The brief hermitage as a youth with his anchorite father, a figure compared with St. Wilhelmus (22; Attwater 342), had surely been prema- ture and too subject to the events of a wartorn world to succeed. The later hermitage in the Black Forest was plagued by fantastic visions of the deadly sins (478, 502). His subsequent wanderings as a picaresque homo viator (Konopatzki 135-42) were overly determined by happenstance to allow for meaningful spiritual experience. Finally, the brief interlude as a wild man, in a sense the possibility for exemplary extrasocietal life (Husband 1-18), was hardly of his own choice, was theatrical sham from which Simplicius desired only to escape (548). It is away from all these failed experiences that he moves, even beyond the fabled realm of the Ethiopian monster races (527 f.; Pliny 405 f.; Husband 39-50) toward an imaginary island in the southern hemis- phere, apparently the abode of virtue.

From the outset Simplicius and his compan- ion are well pleased with their fate. A female castaway, presumed to be an Abyssinian Chris- tian (555), however, proves to be diabolical temptation incarnate (558, 560). She drives the carpenter to homicidal distraction directed against Simplicius, but with the woman's mys- terious passing "fingen wir an etwas Gottse- liger zu leben" (562). As a sign of atonement to Simplicius, Simon erects the three Chris- tian crosses on the island. The remote locus of steadfast virtue becomes a Calvary-like Kreuzinsel, as it is later named by the Dutch. Yet even after having helped to create a holy place, the carpenter dies of the immoderate consumption of palm wine (565). Simplicius is left truly alone; in winnowing out those less worthy, Grimrnelshausen focuses the reader's attention on Simplicius. He alone carries the significant message of virtue, he alone is worthy of comparison to St. Onophrius, an analogy rendered all the more convincing by Grimmelshausen's literary description with its specific reference to Roman Catholic icono- graphic tradition:

Diser [Simplicius] war ein langer starcker wol proportionirter Mann mit geraden Glidern . . . und einem langen schwar- tzen Haar und Bart hie und da mit sehr wenigen grauen Haaren besprengt I die Haubthaar hiengen ihm bil3 iiber den Na- be1 hinunter; umb die Scham hatte er einen Schurtz von Palm-Blattern und auff dem Haupt einen breiten Hut au13 Bintzen geflochten . . . und im ubrigen sahe er beynahe auS 1 wie die Papisten ihren Sanctum Onoffrium abzumahlen pflegen. . . . (580)

The illustration of Simplicius's island refuge (fig. 1)depicts Simplicius just at the moment when he meets the Dutch sea captain. The image coincides with the verbal description, and a late fifteenth-century single-leaf wood- cut, an Andachtsbild in the Roman Catholic tradition, represents St. Onophrius as just such a figure (Husband 96). Hans Schaufelein collapses a series of events in the saint's life- his trial by fire and sacred communion-on a panel painting from approximately 1520 (Husband 97). Other representations (Hus- band 98 f.) take up similar details, each of which is derived from the legend of St. Onophrius, the son of an Abyssinian nomadic chieftain, born while his father was off on military campaigns. Upon his return, the sus- picious father tests the legitimacy of the new- born by exposure to fire. The infant miracu- lously survives and the youngster is baptized, later enters an Egyptian monastery, and even- tually leaves to live as a hermit in a cave. For sixty years in the wilderness, the now hairy anchorite is fed by divine bread and the dates of a palm. He lives in its shade, and when the saint dies, the tree falls (Husband 95-99; Wil- liams 81-85). Mindful of Grimmelshausen's predilection for the eremetic saints and for al- lusions to visual representations (Konopatzki, Welzig), it is germane to pursue the interde- pendent correspondence between Onophrius iconography and the literary description of the hermit Simplicius.

It would be too facile to posit a one-to-one correspondence between Simplicius's child-

SCHADE:Grirnrnelshausen's Continuatio 141

hood tribulations and the trial of Onophrius by his father, although it is of interest that the early life of each of the boys was caught up in questions of paternity (the boy Simplicius does not know that his biological father is the hermit). S~rmlarly problematic is the as- sumption that the female Abyssinian castaway obliquely alludes to the African origins of Simplicius-Onophrius. On the other hand, the crucial dependence of the anchorite saint on the palm tree is unquestionably pertinent to Grirnmelshausen's narrative strategies. Not only does Simplicius wear a loin-covering of palm fronds -like Onophrius -but his phys- ical, spiritual, and creative being revolves around the tree. He, unlike his companion Simon, drinks moderately of palm wine. Po- tentially threatened by lassitude upon the death of Simon (566), Simplicius aligns his thinking with Christian significances: "[Dlie kleine Insul muste mir die gantze Welt seyn I und in derselbigen ein jedes Ding 1 ja ein jeder Baum! ein Antrib zur Gottseligkeit . . . gewanne ich ein Palmwein au13 einem Baum I so bildet ich mir vor I wie mildiglich mein Erloser am Stammen de13 H. Creutzes sein Blut vor mich vergossen . . ." (568). Every palm becomes a surrogate cross and every drink a communion, and he goes on to inscribe the bark of other trees with Biblical sayings and with sketches of the instruments of Christ's passion: sponge, lance, crown of thorns, etc. (527). Simplicius becomes quite literally a woodcut artist. Finally, his literary creativity is linked to the palm, for without paper Simplicius is required to write his biog- raphy (the novel) on its fronds (569 f.), a practice common to tropical cultures. In short, the well-being of both Simplicius and Onophrius depends on the palm, a tree tra- ditionally fraught with meanings pointing be- yond its purely botanical qualities Uons 209-

13; Alciatus 64 f. ).

Given the situation in which the eremitic Simplicius finds hmself, Grirnrnelshausen surely intended the association with the palm to at once authenticate the protagonist's actual location, to indicate the life-sustaining relation- ship Simplicius has to the tree and, finally, to establish a moral and spiritual context for Simplicius's actions. Harsdoerffer, one of Grimmelshausen's many authorities, interprets the palm as a sign of victory (42 f., 370), while Aegidius Albertinus, another irnportant model, equates the tree to Christ hirnself:

Drittens wirdt durch disen Baum Chri- stus oder die Religion verstanden / Dann wie die Friichte de13 Palmbaums sun vnd lieblich seyn / auch Datteln genent wer- den / auch so vil desto siisser seynd / vmb wie vie1 nahender sie in der Sonnen- strahlen stehen: Also ist Christus oder die Religion der Palmbaum: deren Friich- te seind die gerechte und volkomne Man- ner / dieselbigen seind je sii13 / gut vnnd tugentsam: vnd je alter sie werden 1 je tugentsamer seind sie in der Andacht / Gute vnd Barmherzigkeit . . . Vmb wie vie1 nahender sie auch in der Sonn Christo / durch die contemplation, gelegt werden / vmb so vil besser I susser vnd volkomner werden sie. (Welt Tummel 748)

It may be assumed, then, that the palm's spiritual meaning in the Continuatio reflects a preeminence in the Christian imagination and early modern iconographic allegory as such (Fleischer, Henkel-Schone). The be- palmed Kreuzinsel is at once the locus of luxuriant abundance, of virtue, of eremitic spirituality, and of literary creativity in the service of contrition: "Ihn [Gott] urnb Verzei- hung zu bitten I und umb seine Gutthaten zudancken I beschribe ich alles was mir noch eingefallen I in dieses Buch [the autobiographi- cal novel] so ich von obgemelten Blattern [palmfronds] gemacht . . ." (569).

Simplicius is defined by a tree alluding to a further set of meanings. The extensive dis- cussion of the palm in Pliny's Natural History, a text known to Grirnrnelshausen (cf. 527 f.), incorporates an association relevant to the ar- gument: "We have heard a wonderful story too . . . relative to the effect that it [the palm] dies and comes to life again in a similar man- ner to the phoenix, which, it is generally thought, has borrowed its name from the palm-tree . . ." (175). After a complete de- scription of the bird's plumage, Pliny details


Grimmelshausen's Continuatio

cific authorial strategy, one arguably connected to the subscription of the novel's frontispiece:

Ich wurde durchs Fewer wie Phoenix geborn. Ich flog durch die Liiffte! wurd doch nit verlorn, Ich wandert durchs Wasser, Ich rail3t iiber Landt, in solchem Umbschwermen macht ich mir bekandt, was mich offt betruebet und selten ergetzt was war das? Ich habs in dirj Buche gesetzt, darnit sich der Leser gleich wie ich itzt thue, entferne der Thorheit und lebe in Rhue.

Recent analyses of the three Simplician frontispieces have stressed their relationship to the poetological principles of satire and the picaresque (Habersetzer; Schade, Springins- feld), to the representation of the Devil (Paas), to the portrayal of the "scheufiliche Seele" and the mortal sins (Tarot; Schade, Courasche), to the depiction of "der abenteur hauptman" (Michel) and, finally, Grimmelshausen refers to war as a monster (Battafarano). As with all such attempts, the truth about the icono- graphic statement of the Simplicissimus-mon- ster would seem to lie somewhere in between, although Tarot's opinion that the plate is con- nected with the sinful side of the soul (18) apparently corresponds to Albertinus's description of mortal sin as a sea monster: "Wie nun in disem Schaw vnd Thurnierplatz sarnbt vnd neben den Menschen allerley seltzame vnnd erschreckliche monstra vnd Meerwun- der auff ziehen I also sehen wir I erstlich das erschrockhche Thier peccatum mortale oder die Todsund herein tretten . . ." (Thurnierplatz 65). Indeed, it is not untoward to view the earlier chapters of the Continuatio detail- ing Simplicius's graphic visions of the sins (478 f., 501 f. ) as the negative pendant to his virtuous experience on the Kreuzinsel. That insular world is disturbed only briefly by the Abyssinian temptress and she-devil, who dis- appears in a malodorous instant ("verschwan- de . . . und liese einen solchen grausamen

Gestanck hder sich . . ." [559]). Further- more, the "ungeheur" that plagues Simplicius in the period immediately following the death of his companion is to be equated to the threatening temptation of "Musigang" (566), a behavioral danger associated with the deadly sin of sloth (Wenzel; here I disagree with Meid 129-33). Simplicius struggles "rnit dem bosen Geist," he has visions of his dead comrade, he admits to being tortured by "anderen Gei- stern" of his own imagining and, finally, Simplicius resorts to physical labor "darnit mich nun dieselbige [Gedanken] destoweniger mit Siinden beflecken solten . . ." (567). It is also relevant to note that aviary imagery de- scribes his newfound solution to the threat of sloth ("dann gleich wie der Mensch zur Arbeit wie der Vogel zum fliehen geboren ist . . ." [568]), implying at once that toil and the writ- ing of his confessional biography on palm fronds lift him bird-like above the omnipresent sinfulness of the physical world. The refer- ence to his clothing as feathers (565) and, later, as palms (580) makes him every inch a nigh saintly wild man and resident of an ideal extrasocietal realm (Husband 128-33).

The world impinges upon Simplicius yet again with the arrival of the Dutch crew, im- periling the seemingly ideal condition of the island. An earthquake shatters the peace (574), inciting all manner of escatalogical vis- ions and insanity on the part of many sailors. Simplicius ultimately advises the ingestion of plum pits, curative seeds from a tree suitably inscribed with the couplet "Verwunder dich iiber meine Natur I Ich mach es wie Circe die Zaubrisch Hur" (577; see also the earlier ref- erence to Circe 83). The mythological Circe had transformed Odysseus's sailors into swine, whereas Simplicius's Circe-like pits promise to accomplish the reverse. They transform the animalistically insane in admira- ble fashion: "[Dler erste der uns auffstiess l war ein Buchsenmeister I der kroche auff allen vieren daher," relates the Dutchman, "krach- sete wie ein Sau . . . derohalben gabe ich ihrn au13 Rath den Hochteutschen [Simplicius] ein par Kern von denen Pflaumen . . . also das sie kaum warm bey ihm worden I richtet er sich wider auff vnd fieng an vernunfftig zure- den . . ." (582).

Much has been made of precisely this oc- currence (Gersch 135-46), and in support of both Gersch and Tarot it is of interest that Grimmelshausen's authority Albertinus views the same story as an analogue to the workings of mortal sin:

Wir lesen / was gestalt die Zauberin Circe pflegte die Menschen in unverniinfftige Thier zuuerkehren I etliche in wilde Schwein . . . Eben dises thut auch die Siind I dann sie verkehret die Menschen in bestien vnnd benirnbt ihnen ihren Menschlichen verstandt . . . Ob schon aber Circe die Menschen in bestien ve- renderte / so behilten doch dieselbigen ihren sinn vnnd verstandt I vnnd lhre See- len bliben vnuerkehret I aber leider / die Siind ist ein vil argere Zauberey / dann sie lest gleichwohl dem Leib dell Men- schen unuerniinfftigen Thier. (Thurnier- platz 71 f.)

The bestial sinfulness of the crewmen's "wicked souls" (Tarot) manifests itself on the Kreuzinsel, and Simplicius advises a cure by means of the wondrous seed of a plum tree, a plant described by Albertinus as being emblematic of the true Christian: "Durch die- sen Baum werden verstanden all gute Chri- sten I welche wein seynd in der Keuschheit [the white blossoms] I roth in der Lieb [the flesh of the fruit] I schwartz inn der Demut [the pit of the fruit] dannenhero vertreiben sie das Fieber der Sunden 1 vnnd den Gummi die Lieb vnd Barmherzigkeit 1 theilen sie an- dern mit" (Welt Tummel 706). The pit from which this Christian tree emanates is "Demut" (the opposite of sinful pride), whence arises chaste virtue and Christian love (rather than sinful lechery), qualities that supplant the fever of monstrous sinfulness, a condition so graphically described by Alber- tinus:

Zum dreyzehenden ist die Siind vil he13li- cher / schendtlicher I grausamer vnnd erschrecklicher I dem das aller grausam- ste vnnd schendlichst monstrum oder Meerwunder auff Erden I dann wer einen mit Todtsiinden behafften Menschen ei- gentlich beschawet vnd betrachtet / der wirt befinden I dal3 die Hoffart ihm den Kopff zerbricht: der Neyd creutziget vnd peiniget ihm sein Hertz I der Frarj stran- gulieret ihm den Ha113 der Geitzz bindet ihm die Hend I der Zorn erhitzet ihm das angesicht I die Vnkeuscheit agitiret vmd treibt ihne wie ein Schlang: die Faulheit schlagt ihm seine Furj in die Eysen . . . (Thurnierplatz 84)

In short, when the Simplician monster cryptically summarizes in the frontispiece sub- scription that he was born phoenix-like; that he flew, wandered, and traveled the world; that he finally completed his biography on the island sanctuary prior to the arrival of the Dutch, it becomes clear that the plum pit anal- ogy transfers itself to the biography. Just as the ingestion of the miraculous pits cures the sailors of sinful anirnality, so does the writing of the confession underline the exemplary curative function of literary creativity, and so may a complete reading of the text bear the reader from sinful bestiality to virtuous hu- manity, "gleich dem Phoenix, vom Unverstand zum Verstand" (14).

Whatever significance scholars have ascribed to the novel's frontispiece, the monster surely signals to the reader that Simplicis- simus Teutsch is a work detailing monstrous "IGNORANTIA" 1 "Unverstand" (fig. 5; see also Holzwart 32 f.; and Levitine 304, 308-12,


Fig. 5. Emblem of Ignorantia-Monster (1542).
Alciatus, Emblematurn Libellus, with permission.

SCHADE:Grimmelshausen's Contznuatio 147

330-33), an emblematic creature ("Quod monstrum est? Sphinx est . . .") consisting, like the novel's frontispiece, of a fantastic com- posite of disparate animal body parts:

Vnwissenheyt ist zu vermeiden.

Sphinx ein thier stehnd auff lewen pain,
Gfidert, vnd von gsicht weybs gestalt,
Vnwissenheyt das laster gmain
Bedeut, woelchs sonder vberfalt
Die so leben in wollusts gwalt,
In leichtigkeyt, in stoltz vnd pracht:
Vnd sich nur di13 lasters enthalt,
Der sich selbs kent, vnd wol betracht.

Grimmelshausen's frontispiece monster is ignorant. It is truly benighted by "Unver- stand," by a lack of self-knowledge- the cru- cial component in Simplicius's earliest educa- tion (35). Like the young Simplicius, the crea- ture is bound to misapprehend the instructive meanings of graphic images; since they are not accompanied by words of explication, the reader is implicitly exhorted to turn to the novel's text. A proper reading of the autobiog- raphy is sure to lead the reader out of mon- strous ignorance, for it was written by one who ultimately saved himself from a sinful "Un- geheur" by laboring in a paradisical garden, by perceiving the world as a book (568), by inscribing trees with sacred words and images and, finally, by setting pen to salvational palm fronds.

In his tale of seventeenth-century German poets, Das Treffen in Telgte, Gunter Grass aptly characterizes the speech of the Grim- melshausen figure as "rnit Bildern geputzter Rede" (11). The modern novelist's obvious fascination with both Grimmelshausen's per- son and literary technique has catalyzed a con- siderable degree of scholarly activity (Gaede, Haberkamm, Hesselmann), yet it is likely that the significant appeal of Grimmelshausen for Grass may be reduced to a shared Doppelbega- bung as artist-writers. For both, text and image interact sigdicantly ("mit Bildern ge- putzter Rede"). Both have overcome Simpli- cius's naive semiotic confusion (31) and have realized the creative potential inherent in the interaction of word and image.

Furthermore, Grimmelhausen research has long recognized the visual component of the novelist's language. The very fact that his texts were illustrated (Sestendrup) and most often introduced by iconographically complex frontispieces points to the representational power of his literary language, a fact not lost on centuries of book illustrators (Grimmels- hausen und seine Zeit 235-87) and recent exhibition organizers (Simplicissimus heute, mounted in Zurich, Renchen, and Wolfenbiit- tel, 1990-91). Additionally, the fact that sketches from his hand have been preserved (Grimmelshausen und seine Zeit, items 170, 172) and that the novel's text closely describes the act of portraiture (58 f.) argues for the particular appropriateness of textual interpre- tation applying contemporary image-related conventions. Finally, the fact that Grirnrnels- hausen himself composed the subscription to an emblematic portrait of his Nurnberg pub- lisher Felfiecker (Paas, Effigies 218) docu- ments the novelist's understanding of the sig- nificant interaction between subscription text and graphic image. If modern readers are to pass from inappreciative Unverstand to valid Erstand of difficult early modern texts, re- searchers must offer the former advice of a kind the young Simplicius received from the Einsiedler: "[Ilch will dich lehren I da13 du so wol als ich rnit diesen Bildern wirst reden konnen I allein wird es Zeit brauchen I in welcher ich Gedult 1 und du Flea anzulegen" (31). Bild und Rede must fuse, word and image must interact, supplanting semiotic con- fusion with informed understanding.

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