The Prosecution Witness

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The Prosecution Witness
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Prosecution is the procedure by which the law is put in motion to bring an accused person to trial. In theory in the United Kingdom the king is in all criminal offences the Prosecutor, because such offences are said to be against his peace, his crown and dignity, but in procedure such prosecutions are ordinarily undertaken by the individuals, who have suffered from the crime. This is a different procedure from prevailing in Scotland, European continental countries, the Asiatic region and United States, in all of which a public department or officer undertakes the prosecution of offences. The duty of the public prosecutor is to institute, undertake or carry on criminal proceedings in any case and to give advice and assistance to persons concerned in such proceedings. The appointment of such an officer does not preclude any person from instituting or carrying on criminal proceedings, but the public prosecutor may at any stage undertake the conduct of these proceedings if he thinks fit. Witness (the mainstay of prosecution), in simple terms is a person who is called to testify before a court. One who can give a firsthand account of something seen, heard, or experienced: a person present at the scene of crime or having personal knowledge of or provide or serve as evidence of, and last but not the least to testify to one’s religious beliefs. After having gone through the terms of prosecution and witness we now come finally to the term “prosecution witness”. A person (witness) called by the prosecution side to give evidence against the defendant or the accused (party blamed in a court case for wrong doing, also called defendant, offender, or respondent). Another definition of the Prosecution Witness reads “a witness (as the victim of a crime) whose own allegations initiate the prosecution of the defendant”.

Now once the court is in session and the accused is put on trial there are certain set rules of business envisaged in existing law relating to the calling of witnesses of prosecution and the discretion of the prosecutor. Firstly, it should be borne at all times that the Prosecutor has a duty to act in the interests of justice so as to promote a fair trial; The prosecution must have at court those witnesses whose statements have been served on the defence and upon whom the prosecution intends to rely for oral evidence. The prosecution has discretion whether to call and examine a witness or to call and tender them for cross examination; The prosecution ought normally to call or offer to call the witnesses who give direct evidence of the primary facts of the case unless there is good reason to regard the witness's evidence as unworthy of belief;

It is for the prosecution to decide which witnesses give direct evidence of the primary facts of the case and which are marginal; the prosecutor is the primary judge of whether a witness is unworthy of belief. The fact that a witness gives an account at variance with a larger number of other witnesses and one which is less favourable to the prosecution case does not necessarily affect the witness's credibility.

The Crown Court retains a power to issue a witness summons of its own motion should it need to do so. The judge (the prosecutor) has the power to call a witness who has not been called by either the prosecution or the defence, and without the consent of either, if it is necessary in the interests of justice. (This is the discretion which will be used by the Lord Almighty, the true King, and the Creator) Where there are a large number of eyewitnesses to an incident, it is neither always desirable nor necessary to call all of them. Only serve the statements of those witnesses you wish to call at trial. (The Lord Almighty will call all of them). In our world and judicial system Witnesses that the prosecution chooses not to call will generally fall into two categories: Those who contradict the prosecution case and are helpful to the defence. The defence will usually call them as part of their case; Those whose evidence supports the prosecution case but it is decided not to call them. A defence challenge may arise. In the World hereafter and the final Judgement Day it would be different; the defence witnesses would also be called to give their statements.

Evidence

It would be futile to initiate court proceedings without credible evidence and substantial proof. Evidence in its broadest sense includes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion. Giving or procuring evidence is the process of using those things that are either (a) presumed to be true, or (b) were themselves proven via evidence, to demonstrate an assertion's truth. Evidence is the currency by which one fulfills the burden of proof. Many issues surround evidence, making it the subject of much discussion and disagreement. In addition to its subtlety, evidence plays an important role in many academic disciplines, including science and law, adding to the discourse surrounding it. An important distinction in the field of evidence is that between circumstantial evidence and direct evidence, or evidence that suggests truth as opposed to evidence that directly proves truth. Many have seen this line to be less-than-clear and significant: arguments have arisen over the difference. None of this will be required as has been foretold in Quran (final Abrahamic Scripture). Nobody will be questioned for his sins because the veil of the invisible and unknown would be lifted.

Burden of proof

The burden of proof is the burden of providing sufficient evidence to shift a conclusion from an oppositional opinion. Whoever does not carry the burden of proof carries the benefit of assumption. Whoever bears the burden of proof must present sufficient evidence to move the conclusion to his advantage. The burden of proof must be fulfilled both by establishing positive evidence and negating oppositional evidence. (On the Judgement Day the burden of proof lies on the Prosecutor, The Sublime King). There are two primary burden-of-proof considerations: The question of on whom the burden rests. The question of the degree of certitude the proof must support. This depends on both the quantity and quality of evidence and the nature of the point under contention. Some common degrees of certitude include the most probable event, reasonable doubt, and beyond the shadow of a doubt

Problems in evidence

The theory of evidence is a field wrought with dispute. Many of these disputes stem from the limits of human knowing, a field known as epistemology. Possibly the most salient question of evidence is how, if, and what, one can know. This is the question of evidence's limits. (Or, in other words, the question is to what extent it is even possible to fulfill the burden of proof. What can be more justifiable once the offender’s own body parts would speak as witness to the sins committed on the Judgement Day this will be done with perfection). Some believe all evidence to be circumstantial, denying the possibility of direct evidence. (Not that day it will be given).

Provision of Justice is the primary need of any society to survive and justice in simple terms means administering of deserved punishment or reward. An objective prosecution is thus the pinnacle for achieving a nonviolent and homogenous civilization. Justice meted not only serve as compensation but as an assurance to the victims in particular and the society in general that such crimes would not be repeated. It envisages feeling of an overall secure environment and simultaneously indoctrinates a definite dread in criminals against law breaking for fear of punishment. But what about the victims which have not been compensated and the criminals who have ducked the system, who would account for them? The answer is given in Abrahamic Scriptures by relating it to a dedicated day, “The Judgement Day”. The concept of the Judgement Day or the Day of Resurrection as recognized by major religions of the world.

Christianity (population 2.1 billion and constituting 33 % of the present day world)

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, or The Day of the Lord in Christian theology, is the final and eternal judgment by God of every nation. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels, particularly the Gospel of Matthew. It will purportedly take place after the resurrection of the dead and the Second Coming of Christ . The doctrine and iconographic depiction of the "Last Judgment" are drawn from many passages from the apocalyptic sections of the Bible. It appears most directly in The Sheep and the Goats section of the Gospel of Matthew where the judgment is entirely based on help given or refused to "the least of these".

"All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates his sheep from the goats, and He will set the sheep on His right hand but the goats at the left. Then the king will say to those on His right hand, “Come, you blessed, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, I was naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me.”... “Assuredly, I say to you, in as much as you did it to one of the least of these My Brethren, you did it to me.”

"Then He will also say to those on the left hand, “Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave Me no food, I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.” ... “Assuredly, I say to you, in as much as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.” And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."(Matthew 25:31-36, 40-43, 45-46 NRSV). The doctrine is further supported by passages in the Books of Daniel, Isaiah and the Revelation: "And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works." (Rev 20:11-12).

With a bit of difference nearly all sects in Christianity do believe in resurrection and the judgment day. Adherents of millennialism, mostly Protestant Christians, regard the two passages as describing separate events: the "sheep and goats" judgment will determine the final status of those persons alive at the end of the Tribulation, and the "Great White Throne" judgment will be the final condemnation of the unrighteous dead at the end of all time, after the end of the world and before the beginning of the eternal period i.e. the life hereafter. The Catholics belief in the last judgment is often linked with the General judgment. They believe that immediately upon death each soul undergoes the particular judgment, and depending upon the state of the person's soul, goes to heaven, purgatory, or hell. The last judgment will occur after the resurrection of the dead and the reuniting of a person's soul with own physical body. Lutherans, however, do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day. On the last day, all the dead will be resurrected. Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying. The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment, those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory. After the resurrection of all the dead, all nations shall be gathered and the righteous will be separated from the wicked. They will be publicly judged by the testimony of their faith, the good works of the righteous in evidence of their faith, and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief. They will be judged in righteousness in the presence of all men and angels, and the final judgement will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.

Islam (population of 1.5 billion and constituting 21 % of the present day world)

In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din (Arabic: "the Day of Judgment") is believed to be the final assessment of humanity by Almighty God as it exists. The sequence of events (according to the most commonly held belief) is the annihilation of all creatures, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures (primarily the human beings). There is a complete Surah (chapter) in Quran (the Holy book of Muslims) name “Al Qiyama”(The Day of Judgement), whose subject is resurrection. Belief in al-Qiyāmah is considered a fundamental tenet of faith by all Muslims. Belief in the day of Judgement is one of the six articles of faith. The trials and tribulations associated with it are detailed in both the Qur'an and the Hadith(sayings of The Holy Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon Him), as well as in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities such as Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah who explain them in detail. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is believed to be held accountable for their deeds and are understood to be judged by God accordingly. Islam teaches that on this Day, all living things will be raised to life again and called in front of God individually for the final judgment. People will be divided; some will enter Jannah (Paradise) and some will enter Jahannam (Hell-Fire). The Qur'an describes this Day of one of happiness for the believers and terror for those who disbelieved in its existence. The Qur'an emphasizes the power of God: "Surely, He who brings life to the dead earth (through rainfall) can surely give life to men who are dead" (Qur'an, Chapter or Sura 41: Verse or Ayah 39). A Muslim believes in, Oneness of God, the finality of the prophet hood in shape of Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) and all other Prophets (Peace be Upon Them) · Revealed books, Angels · Predestination, Day of Resurrection (Judgement Day), Practices to include · Prayers Fasting · Alms · Pilgrimage .Texts & laws Quran · Sunnah · Hadith. Fiqh · Sharia · and the doing of good works on earth is the requirement for salvation, provided that Shirk(beliefs like trinity, god incarnate, son of god or many gods etc) is not committed. The pledge of the judgment day is that no injustice would be done. “Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an atom, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.” —Qur'an, 4:40

God will resurrect people even if they turned to stone or iron. “The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please Allah (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!” Qur’an, 39 : 68. In Islamic eschatology, Barzakh (Arabic- intermediate state) is the state in which the Nafs (soul) of the deceased is believed to be transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into a kind of "sleep" in which the soul would supposedly rest until the Qiyamah(Day of Judgement). During Divine judgment, it is believed that each person's Book of Deeds, in which "every small and great thing is recorded", will be opened and every individual will be handed over its record to witness for itself. (Actions taken before puberty are not judged.) Throughout the judgment, the underlying principle is complete and perfect justice administered by God Almighty Himself Alone. Accounts of the judgment are also replete with the emphasis that God is merciful and forgiving, and that mercy and forgiveness will be granted on that day. The Qur'an states that even the smallest acts of the believers will not be wasted. And the people who revert to the religion Islam (the concept is that all born are Muslims and adopt the religion of the family they are born and with acceptance of Islam they are primarily reverting and not proselyte) will also be granted rewards for their good deeds done once they were non-believers, but will be pardoned for all the sins committed once they were non- believers. “Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabians - whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.” Qur'an, 2: 62. “Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.” Qur'an, 99: 7-8. The supposed age of the hereafter or rest of eternity is the final stage believed to commence after the Day of Judgment, when all of humanity is believed to have received their judgment from God, if one were righteous and did good deeds based on their own circumstances, one would go to Jannah (Paradise), and if one had attained little in life and were unrighteous in their actions, or were, despite all evidence shown to one, bent on denying the truth of life once it was presented to one, one would go to Jahannam (Hell).

Hinduism (population 900 million and constitute 14 %of the present day world)

No concept of the judgement day exists in Hinduism, however they do believe in after life. After death, Hindus are not buried, but cremated. The idea is that the human personality is made up of five elements of which four belong to the body and come from this world, namely fire, earth, water and air while the fifth the ether (fine matter) belongs to the domain of the subtle body and comes from the higher worlds. By cremating the body, the elements are rightfully returned to their respective spheres, while the subtle body along with soul returns to the worlds beyond for the continuation of its afterlife. Hinduism believes in the existence of not one hell and one heaven but in the existence of many sun filled worlds and many dark and demonic worlds. Vaikunth is the world of Vishnu, Kailash is the world of Shiva and Brahmalok is the world of Brahman. Indralok is the standard heaven to which those who please the gods through their activities upon the earth go. The standard hell is Yamalok, which is also ruled by a god called Yama, who is also the ruler of the southern quarter. In the ultimate sense, the purpose of these worlds is neither to punish nor reward the souls, but to remind them of the true purpose of their existence.

Buddhism (population 376 million and constitute 6%of the present day world)

There is no almighty god in Buddhism. There is no one to hand out rewards or punishments on a supposedly Judgement Day. From its inception, Buddhism has stressed the importance of death, since awareness of death is what prompted Buddha to perceive the ultimate futility of worldly concerns and pleasures. Realizing that death is inevitable for a person who is caught up in worldly pleasures and attitudes, he resolved to renounce the world and devote himself to finding a solution to this most basic of existential dilemmas. A Buddhist looks at death as a breaking apart of the material of which we are composed. However Buddhism does not look at death as a continuation of the soul but as an awakening. Dying and being reborn has been compared by some Buddhist as a candle flame. When the flame of one lit candle is touched to the wick of an unlighted candle, the light passes from one candle to another. The actual flame of the first candle does not pass over but is responsible for lighting the second candle. Samsara is a fundamental concept in Buddhism and it is simply the 'perpetual cycles of existence' or endless rounds of rebirth among the six realms of existence. This cyclical rebirth pattern will only end when a sentient being attains Nirvana, i.e. virtual exhaustion of karma, habitual traces, defilements and delusions. This perspective is very limited compared with Buddhist samsara where heaven is just one of the six realms of existence and it has 28 levels/planes. In Buddhism, the ultimate objective of followers/practitioners is enlightenment and/or liberation from Samsara; rather than to go to a Heaven. Rebirth is another key doctrine in Buddhism and it goes hand in hand with karma. There is a subtle difference between rebirth and reincarnation as expounded in Hinduism. Buddhism rejects the theory of a transmigrating permanent soul, whether created by a god or emanating from a divine essence. The concept of Hell(s) in Buddhism is very different from that of other religions. It is not a place for eternal damnation as viewed by 'almighty creator' religions. In Buddhism, it is just one of the six realms in Samsara [i.e. the worst of three undesirable realms]. Also, there are virtually unlimited numbers of hells in the Buddhist cosmology as there are infinite numbers of Buddha worlds.

Judaism (population 14 million constituting 0.22 % of the present day world)

Belief in resurrection of the dead is one of Rambam's 13 Principles of Faith. The second blessing of the Shemoneh Esrei prayer, which is recited three times daily, contains several references to resurrection. (Note: the Reform movement, which apparently rejects this belief, has rewritten the second blessing accordingly). Judaism has stressed the natural fact of death and its role in giving life a substantial meaning. The fear of death, concern about the fate of our own soul and those of our loved ones, ethical concerns that some people die unfairly, all these and many other issues are discussed in Jewish literature. Since God is seen as ultimately just, the seeming injustice on Earth has propelled many traditional Jewish thinkers into seeing the afterlife as a way to reflect the ultimate justice of human existence. Traditional thinkers have considered how individuals would be rewarded or punished after their deaths. There are a few rare descriptions of life after death. Traditionalists gave the name Gehenna to the place where souls would be punished. Many Jewish thinkers noted that since, essentially, God is filled with mercy and love, punishment is not considered to be eternal. There are, similarly, many varying conceptions of paradise, such as that paradise is the place where we finally understand the true concept of God. It is also possible that there is no separate Heaven and Hell, only lesser or greater distance from God after death. Judaism does not believe people who are Gentiles (non-Jewish) will automatically go to Hell or that Jews will automatically go to Heaven on their basis of their belonging to the faith. Rather, individual ethical behavior is what is most important. Traditional Judaism firmly believes that death is not the end of human existence. However, because Judaism is primarily focused on life here and now rather than on the afterlife, Judaism does not have much dogma about the afterlife, and leaves a great deal of room for personal opinion. It is possible for an Orthodox Jew to believe that the souls of the righteous dead go to a place similar to the Christian heaven, or that they are reincarnated through many lifetimes, or that they simply wait until the coming of the messiah, when they will be resurrected. Likewise, Orthodox Jews believe that the souls of the wicked are tormented by demons of their own creation, or that wicked souls are simply destroyed at death, ceasing to exist. The eventual resurrection of the dead is a fundamental belief of traditional Judaism. It was a belief that distinguished the Pharisees (intellectual ancestors of Rabbinical Judaism) from the Sadducees. The Sadducees rejected the concept, because it is not explicitly mentioned in the Torah. The Pharisees found the concept implied in certain verses. The resurrection of the dead will occur in the messianic age, a time referred to in Hebrew as the Olam Ha-Ba, the World to Come, but that term is also used to refer to the spiritual afterlife. When the messiah comes to initiate the perfect world of peace and prosperity, the righteous dead will be brought back to life and given the opportunity to experience the perfected world that their righteousness helped to create. The wicked dead will not be resurrected.

 

 

Zoroastrianism (population 2.6 million)

The concept of judgement day follows that a final savior of the world, namely Saoshyant, will be born to a virgin impregnated by the seed of Zoroaster while bathing in a lake. Saoshyant will raise the dead – including those in both heaven and hell – for final judgment, returning the wicked to hell to be purged of bodily sin. Next, all will wade through a river of molten metal in which the righteous will not burn. Heavenly forces will ultimately triumph over evil, rendering it forever impotent. Saoshyant and Ahura Mazda will offer a bull as a final sacrifice for all time, and all men will become immortal. Mountains will again flatten and valleys will rise; heaven will descend to the moon, and the earth will rise to meet them both. The Parsees (Zoroastrians) do not cremate, bury or submerge their dead in water because they consider the dead to be impure, and their Zoroastrian faith does not permit them to defile any of the elements with them. Instead they have a desert ritual for disposal of dead. This ritual originated along with their faith in Persia more than 3,000 years ago and regards death not as the work of God but of the devil, dictates that the dead be left to vultures on hilltops. It is common for Parsees in India and elsewhere to travel long distances to bring their dead to designated places. In India the dead are brought to the Mumbai towers because prayers for the dead can only be said for those who have passed through its gates. Dead Parsees are carried on a bier to a ceremonial gate near the five Towers of Silence, where relatives hand them to pallbearers, the only people allowed inside. The black stone towers, about 36 meters high, are like three-tiered, open-air arenas where the men are placed in the outer circle, women in the middle and children in the innermost for the vultures to feed on. But with an average of three Parsees dying every day, the handful of vultures at the towers are overfed. Experts say about 100-120 birds would be needed to deal with the daily intake of bodies. The Zoroastrians, or Parsees, have installed solar reflectors in their Towers of Silence in Mumbai to help dispose of their dead after a decline in the number of vultures that scavenge their corpses.

The Judgement Day- an objective conclusion

Presently, 54.22% of the known world to include 14 million (0.22%) Jews, 2.1 billion (33%) Christians and 1.5 billion (21%) Muslims is following the Abrahamic religions. Also known as the People of the Book, they follow the Divine Manuscripts, Torah, Bible and Qur’an respectively, revealed to Messengers chosen and guided by The Lord Almighty. They all believe in the Judgement Day (Resurrection) and life hereafter. The medians of rationalization and a viable pragmatic approach suggest pursuing the latest medicine, state-of-the-art technology and newest anecdote cum study available for adoption. A Thoracic Surgeon would not bank upon an x-ray to remove a carcinomas lobe once he has the advantage of MRI and Cat Scan, a tourist would not walk from one continent to another once he can take a plane and a research fellow would not bother to access a hundred books to draw an objective conclusion if he is assured of a holistic account in a single authentic book. In all due fairness and corollary to the discussion held in the preceding paragraphs and the undeniable fact that Qur’an being the latest, the most authentic and originally preserved Manuscript of the Abrahamic Religions, I will dwell on revelations made in Qur’an for addressing the subject of Judgement Day, the impending Prosecution and the Final Decree. “And this Qur'an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it [i.e. the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.], and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for mankind) - wherein there is no doubt from the the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns,and all that exists).(10:37)”. The order of events and sights of the Judgement Day as revealed in the Qur’an would be:-

The length of the day would be fifty thousand years (70:4). That day, the dominion as of right and truth, shall be (wholly) for Allah (a unique name of the One God Almighty) Most Merciful: it will be a day of dire difficulty for the misbelievers. The day that the wrongdoer will bite at his hands,”Oh! would that I had taken a straight path with the messenger (25:26-27). Then, when one blast is sounded on the trumpet and the earth is moved and its mountains and they are crushed to powder at one strike. On that day shall the (great) event come to pass. And the sky will rent asunder, for it will that day be flimsy (69:13-16). On the day when the earth will be changed to other than the earth, and the heavens (also will be changed) and they will come forth unto Allah, the One, the Almighty, (14:48). A day when the heaven with the clouds will be rent asunder and the angels will be sent down, a grand descent (25:25). And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the Witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged. And each soul is paid in full for what it did. And He (Allah) is Best Aware of what they do. (39:69-70). And the angels will be on its sides, and eight will that day bear the throne of thy Lord above them. That day shall ye be brought to judgement. Not an act of yours that ye hide will be hidden. Then he that will be given record in his right hand will say: “Ah here! Read my record! I did really understand that my account would (one day) reach me!” and he will be in a life of bliss (69:17-21). And he that will be given his record in left hand, will say: ”Ah! Would that my record had not been given to me ! and that I had never realized how my account (stood)! Ah! Would that (death) had made an end of me. The stern command will say, ”Seize ye him and burn ye him in the blazing fire”(69:25-31). And those who disbelieve are driven unto hell in troops till, when they reach it and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Came there not unto you messengers of your own, reciting unto you the revelations of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this your Day ? they say: Yea, verily. But the word of doom of disbelievers is fulfilled. It is said (unto them): Enter ye the gates of hell to dwell therein. Thus hapless is the journey's end of the scorners. And those who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the Garden in troops till, when they reach it, and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Peace be unto you! Ye are good, so enter ye (the Garden of delight), to dwell therein; They say: Praise be to Allah, Who hath fulfilled His promise unto us and hath made us inherit the land, sojourning in the Garden where we will! So bounteous is the wage of workers. And thou (O Muhammad) seest the angels thronging round the Throne, hymning the praises of their Lord. And they are judged aright. And it is said: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds! (39:70-75).

“O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily! We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharge i.e. offspring of Adam), then from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood) then from a little lump of flesh, some formed and some unformed (miscarriage), that We may make (it) clear to you (i.e. to show you Our Power and Ability to do what We will). And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then We bring you out as infants, then (give you growth) that you may reach your age of full strength. And among you there is he who dies (young), and among you there is he who is brought back to the miserable old age, so that he knows nothing after having known. And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) on it, it is stirred (to life), it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth)” (22:5).

“(And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imam [their Prophets, or their records of good and bad deeds, or their Holy Books like the Qur'an, the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), etc.]. So whosoever is given his record in his right hand, such will read their records, and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.”(17:71).

The Divine Prosecution

The stage is now set for prosecution. The charge sheet has been presented to each individual; every person holds in his hands a print out of his actions. Every individual knows in his / her hearts of hearts that he doesn’t stand a chance of acquittal or that probably he has made it through. The charge sheet does not miss anything, the record as he holds is simply amazing down to every moment every deed is accounted for. The court is set, The Prosecutor, The King embraces His Throne and every one waits for the proceedings to commence. The agony and ecstasy is distressing, but nobody dare request His Lordship to give His Infinite blessings to initiate proceedings. A group of representative nations paces over to several Messengers pleading them for arbitration with the Lordship but they all refuse, making one excuse or another, dreading to sin on account of speaking to the Mighty King unless you are spoken to. “None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Beneficent (Allah)”(19:87). Finally, the dismayed group of people would reach Muhammad Peace be upon Him and request Him to mediate and request the Lord to commence proceedings of Prosecution. The Last Messenger would agree to approach the throne (as his sins previous and past have been forgiven) and prostrate and praise the Lord in words (as taught by the Lord Himself) which had never been spoken before and praise that has never been made. After many prostrations the permission would be granted and proceedings commence. The summoning of witnesses begins. The witness of prosecution for individual nations would be their respective Prophets. The main witness of Prosecution on the assemblage of Prophets would be the Last Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon Him and the prosecution witnesses as a gathering for the entire mankind would be the last Nation under the auspice of the last Prophet i.e. of course the Muslims. In words of the Qur’an:-

And (bethink you of) the day when we raise up of every nation a witness, then there is no leave for disbelievers, nor are they allowed to make amends(16:84). And for every nation there is a messenger. And when their messenger cometh (on the Day of Judgment) it will be judged between them fairly, and they will not be wronged (10:47). And We shall take out from every nation a witness and We shall say: Bring your proof. Then they will know that Allah hath the Truth, and all that they invented will have failed them (28:75). Addressing The Muslims Allah Says, “Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you (02:143). The reason for this appointment, “And there may spring from you a nation who invite to goodness, and enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency. Such are they who are successful” (03:104). Verily, those who believe [in the Oneness of Allah, and in His Messenger Muhammad including all obligations ordered by Islam] and do righteous good deeds, they are the best of creatures.(98:7). “And (bethink you of) the day when We raise in every nation a witness against them of their own folk, and We bring thee (Muhammad) as a witness(Main Prosecution Witness) against these. And We reveal the Scripture unto thee as an exposition of all things, and a guidance and a mercy and good tidings for those who have surrendered (to Allah)-(16:89).

The prosecution witnesses are summoned one after the other, every messenger bears witness to his respective nation as prophesied, dispelling every wrong practice refuting every defective belief, retelling true teachings and cursing their apostles to have altered them for worldly gains. “And whoever disbelieved, let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad ),. to Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts (of men)” (31:23). “And insult not those whom they (disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge. Thus We have made fair-seeming to each people its own doings; then to their Lord is their return and He shall then inform them of all that they used to do. Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects (all kinds of religious sects), you (O Muhammad) have no concern in them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do” (6:108,159). And every person will come forth along with an (angel) to drive (him), and an (angel) to bear witness. (It will be said to the sinners): "Indeed you were heedless of this, now We have removed your covering, and sharp is your sight this Day!". And his companion (angel) will say: "Here is (this Record) ready with me!" (And it will be said): "Both of you throw (Order from Allah to the two angels) into Hell, every stubborn disbeliever (in the Oneness of Allah, in His Messengers, etc.). "Hinderer of good, transgressor, doubter, "Who set up another ilah (god) with Allah, then (both of you) cast him in the severe torment." His companion (Satan devil)] will say: "Our Lord! I did not push him to transgress, (in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds) but he was himself in error far astray." Allah will say: "Dispute not in front of Me, I had already, in advance, sent you the threat. The Sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed, and I am not unjust (to the least) to the slaves."(50:21-29). Written evidence of every action has already been provided with dates and times. The felons and followers wait in anguish for the final decree. Amidst pin drop silence there is a feeling of sorrow, nobody sure of his fate, but feelings persist and once Hell is brought near that Day man will remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him? He will say: "Alas! Would that I had sent forth (good deeds) for (this) my life!"(89:23-24) And others await Allah's Decree, whether He will punish them or forgive them. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise(9:106). But wait there is an amazing list of witnesses yet to testify on behalf of prosecution. “On the Day when their tongues, their hands, and their legs or feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do”(24:24). This Day, We shall seal up their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their legs will bear witness to what they used to earn (36:65). It is said that one's left thigh will be the first to bear the witness.

The Main Prosecution witness Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) has spoken and borne witness to the divine message spread by His predecessors to their nations word to word as ordained by The Creator and the last nation has borne witness to the entire mankind before them.

The final decree is thus administered as foretold

"So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein, and indeed, what an evil abode will be for the arrogant."(16:29) This is Hell which you were promised!(36:63). "That shall be their recompense, Hell; because they disbelieved and took My Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and My Messengers by way of jest and mockery.(18:106). And We shall drive the Mujrimun (polytheists, sinners, criminals, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, etc.) to Hell, in a thirsty state (like a thirsty herd driven down to water),(19:86). And on the Day of Resurrection you will see those who lied against Allah (i.e. attributed to Him sons, partners, etc.) their faces will be black. Is there not in Hell an abode for the arrogant ones?(39:60) It will be said (to them): "Enter you the gates of Hell, to abide therein. And (indeed) what an evil abode of the arrogant!"(39:72). And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups, till, when they reach it, the gates thereof will be opened (suddenly like a prison at the arrival of the prisoners). And its keepers will say, "Did not the Messengers come to you from yourselves, reciting to you the Verses of your Lord, and warning you of the Meeting of this Day of yours?" They will say: "Yes, but the Word of torment has been justified against the disbelievers!"(39:71) It (Hell) almost bursts up with fury. Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask: "Did no warner come to you?". They will say: "Yes indeed; a warner did come to us, but we belied him and said: 'Allah never sent down anything (of revelation), you are only in great error.'" And they will say: "Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!". Then they will confess their sin. So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire.(67:8,9,10,11). (It will be said) "Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire, "Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water, "Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous! "Verily! This is that whereof you used to doubt!"(44:47,48,49,50).

And those who kept their duty to their Lord will be led to Paradise in groups, till, when they reach it, and its gates will be opened (before their arrival for their reception) and its keepers will say: Salamun 'Alaikum (peace be upon you)! You have done well, so enter here to abide therein."(39:73). Verily! The Muttaqun (pious - see V.2:2), will be in place of Security (Paradise). Among Gardens and Springs; Dressed in fine silk and (also) in thick silk, facing each other, So (it will be), and We shall marry them to Huurs (female fair ones) with wide, lovely eyes. They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security; They will never taste death therein except the first death (of this world), and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire, As a Bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success! Certainly, We have made this (Qur'an) easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember (44:51-58).

With the confession of doomed sinners before entering hell, every plausible feature of justice would have been met. Imagine the ill-fated people who would finally confess to their crime and the secret had been foretold. What more could you ask of a Prosecutor, a King, a Creator, a Lord or a True Judge where a comprehensive course of action is handed over in shape of a definitive code of life(Qur’an) to be followed for definitive acquittal.

“Is not Allah the most conclusive of all judges?” (95:08)

 

Final thoughts

The foregoing commentary is not to derision any religion it is but a humble comparative study to presage in righteousness, that there is a world hereafter and there is a judgment day as unanimously acclaimed by a majority of today’s world. Islam provides an assurance in shielding the existence of all mankind for the eternally claimed life. Lord Almighty Allah in His infinite mercy has already forecasted the destiny of the people who don’t believe and the ones who believe. The believers have to follow a straight path of righteousness and in accordance with the teachings of the right religion. The purpose is not to impose Islamic theology on the readers; it is but to deliver the Divine Message. Taking corrective measures and adopting the True Faith is an individual discretion, for faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen and blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe. ”And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our ilah (God) and your ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)."(29:46).

Like the other Abrahamic religions less the element of shirk (Polytheism, Trinity), Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Heaven), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell). A significant fraction of the Qur’an deals with these beliefs, with many Hadiths (authentic sayings of the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon Him), elaborating on the themes and details. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing the Armageddon is often known as fitna (a test). The events that occur in the final moments of humanity will mainly revolve around Dajjal(a character which will appear in end of days) and his ability to woo humanity to a new world religion, one that is not divinely issued. The idea of a Mahdi returning to help humanity against the "Great Deception" is also mentioned in Sunni traditions, but is specifically outlined as Muhammad al-Mahdi in Shia sources. There are many sources that have prophecies regarding the last days, with only some that are accepted as repeated in different sources by different people.

With every passing moment the known cosmos is unfolding its treasures, making mankind aware of its secrets as foretold by The Lord in His brilliant Final Scripture “The Qur’an” - None has ever proven wrong. The irony is that despite such advancement the world especially the west has never opted to research on the veracity of true religion. The socio religious interactions and practices in each known religion and belief are being followed in letter and spirit without questioning the fact or fallacy of individual actions. Every person knowledgeable or ignorant is following and practicing his own faith with zeal and fervor in his/her independent capacity and considers doing so as a vital aspect of their life. Today, all stand united on mathematical equations the scientific derivations of physics, driving ways and means of gaining energy. All stand united on moving status of Sun. Past theologies have been set aside one cannot find a single person following the religion of Aristotle. Every false concept has been discarded in view of the new found evidence. But there still stands a difference between the Hindu, Buddhist, Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Every follower considers his theology to be the true path and remaining as junk when they are poles apart from each other in belief and practice. Many a wars have been fought and millions killed on the basis of religious differences. What impedes the collective environment of truth to unite all mankind on one true religion?

A deliberate study of the nature reveals that the tinniest of the living being is governed by certain rules and laws and the smallest of plant is following a defined path without fail. The heavenly bodies are following a particular order and are bind to their respective trails. The sun despite being 1.3 million times bigger than the earth never fails to bring light to this world. The changing weathers, the appearance of day and night all following a distinct routine. Is all of this happening on its own? Any logical mind would reject such a stupid assumption and acknowledge that there is some binding force some heavenly administrator under whose direction and sublime authority the Cosmos is ensuing set commandments. It is but The Lord Almighty in His infinite mercy Who has set a course of action for every living and nonliving thing. May it be massive heavenly bodies or Quarks(the smallest particle), the gigantic Blue whale (the largest known mammal) or the Carsonella’s Genome(the smallest bacterium living in special cell inside an insect), every existing entity has a determined path, an orbit to track, a law to abide, a predetermined destiny to fulfill as ordained by The Creator. How can one imagine the most intricate and complex of creations, the human, being devoid of a stipulated direction plan? Well it most definitely does have a divine plan to follow. However, mankind enjoys the stature of best of creations. The status of free will accepted at the time of creation in return of eternity has put it through a tough ordeal of believing in the unseen. But before embarking on this journey the Lord took a testimony, “And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves (saying): Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily. We testify. (that was ) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware” (7:172). The divine direction plan for humanity was revealed by The Lord through His Messengers with scriptures dictated by the Lord Himself from time to time in every nook and corner of the world. These scriptures had guidance for mankind with actions corresponding to the respective times of revelation; the basic fundamentals remaining unchanged. No new faith was ever pronounced by any messenger. However, serious distortions were made favoring vested interests, individually and as nations. These individuals and nations were duly punished and annihilated; there was a need that a Final word through a Final messenger be communicated to the human race. “He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nuh (Noah), and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Mosesý) and 'Iesa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion). Intolerable for the Mushrikun (Polytheist), is that to which you (O Muhammad) call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience” (42:13). Muhammad Peace be upon Him was thus chosen for the formidable task. As grave the responsibility so was the elevated demeanor. The ultimate guide had to be equipped with a perfect manuscript suitable for all times and ages to come otherwise it would tantamount to a pilot without a flight plan a guide without route map. The plan was revealed in a span of no less than 23 years in shape of Quran. Its practical example was presented in shape of the life of Muhammad and his revered companions (Allah is pleased with them). “And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad) after the right path has been shown clearly to him and follows other than the believers' way. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an evil destination” (4:115)

The Quran refers to the divine plan as a straight path or a straight line. The directions to follow are covered in minutest details of each known aspect of life and hereafter. The proposal envisages a complete code of life assuring immunity from divine prosecution and a blissful eternal life. It implies desired course of action from beginning to the end of one’s life. Straight line as mathematically defined is the shortest distance between two known points. Nobody can repudiate that the beginning and end of life as two recognized points in a cycle of life. Quran (read The Almighty Lord) teaches you through his last messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) the tactic and approach for embracing this straight line and forbids mankind to go astray, for the remaining are deviations and the Satan’s path, the safest and the most secure is definitely the divine straight line. “They (all those who worship others than Allah) invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah), and they invoke nothing but Shaitan (Satan), a persistent rebel!. Allah cursed him. And he [Shaitan (Satan)] said: "I will take an appointed portion of your slaves; And surely I will lead them astray, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah." And whoever takes Shaitan (Satan) as a Wali (protector or helper) instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss (4:117,118,119)

 

 

Inference

Offering closing remarks while addressing a mammoth gathering of His devoted Companions at His departing sermon on Haj (a yearly congregation of Muslims at Arafat-Mecca), the Last messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) said, “Behold! Worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramadhaan; pay readily the Zakat (poor due) on your property; and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord. Let him that is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience.”

The Prophet Peace be upon Him then put a direct question to the noble audience “And if you were asked about me, what would you say?"

------- They answered, "We bear witness that you have conveyed the trust (of religion) and discharged your ministry of Prophethood and looked to our welfare."

------- Thereupon, The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) lifted his forefinger towards the sky and then pointing towards people said:

--- "O’ Lord: Bear Thou witness unto it. --- O’ Lord: Bear Thou witness unto it”.

This was a reassurance for Himself in the presence of witnesses and Lord Almighty about the successful completion of the arduous task He was given. In fact it was an obligation fulfilled to stand worthy of being summoned as the Main Prosecution witness on the Judgement Day and a reminder cum final vow for His nation to fulfill their obligations as messengers to Mankind and thus stand as Prosecution Witness against the entire humanity on the Day of Decision. It was on this auspicious day that the final revelation was pronounced, “This day the disbelievers despair of prevailing against your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me (Allah)! This day have I perfected for you your religion and fulfilled My favor unto you, and it hath been My good pleasure to choose Islam for you as your religion” (5: 3).

Is there a world hereafter? Is the ultimate question. If there is, then most definitely there is God, I for one stand witness to His presence and firmly believe there is and if there is God He has to be Just and if he is Just there would be a Judgement Day to justify the lacking’s of rewards and punishments. For doing so, this God has to be alone, one and only, He has to be free of any obligations, He has to be Eternal, Absolute. He begetteth not, nor is he begotten. And there has to be none like Him. The Lord Almighty in his infinite Mercy reveals, “Allah (Himself) is Witness that there is no God save Him. And the angels and the men of learning (too are witness). Maintaining His creation in justice, there is no God save Him the Almighty, the Wise (3:18)”.

The prosecution process is not an obligation on the Lord Almighty, for He is the King and can do as HE desires, but it is for his attributes of Perfection, Mercy and Justice that He decided to hold a Judgement Day and the Divine Prosecution. Despite repeated reminders through dedicated messengers, men of learning and availability of irrefutable Final Scripture in shape of The Qur’an, a vast majority of Mankind is adamantly poised to commit unpardonable offences against The True Crown, against His Peace and Dignity. They choose to position themselves as criminals in front of The Almighty Lord. Why not instead, be a Prosecution Witness.

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