Mahler Contra Wagner: The Philosophical Legacy of Romanticism in Gustav Mahler's Third and Fourth Symphonies

by Carl Niekerk
Mahler Contra Wagner: The Philosophical Legacy of Romanticism in Gustav Mahler's Third and Fourth Symphonies
Carl Niekerk
The German Quarterly
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University ofIllinoisl Urbana-Champaign

Mahler contra Wagner: The Philosophical Legacy of Romanticism in Gustav Mahler's Third and Fourth Symphonies'

In recent years, scholars working in the field of German Cultural Studies have produced a substantial number of texts about Richard Wagner and the cultural-political dimensions of his work. In practice, the Cultural Studies movement reproduces thereby, in spite of its critical ambitions, hierarchies which have dominated middle-class German culture for a long time. The cultural interests of the German middle class in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century decidedly included Wagner and excluded Mahler. Other contemporary composers such as Alban Berg,Arnold Schoenberg, Hugo Wolf or Alexander Zemlinsky, who worked within the same literary, political and cultural tradition as did Wagner and Mahler, shared Mahler's marginality

But why did Wagner become such a prominent figure in German culture"? Several factors are at play here. His popularity can certainly be attributed to his use of mythological texts with considerable canonical status in the German cultural tradition.i Simultaneously, he published many theoretical essays on important cultural and political issues. From his earliest writings, he declared himself a political thinker and a cultural critic. His essays explicitly articulated political interests that were initially progressive, but grew increasingly conservative and nationalistic after the failure of the revolution of 1848. Last but not least, Wagner suggested that his art possessed redemptive qualities, accessible only to a carefully selected elite. Wagner's aesthetic-political agenda is nowhere clearer than in his last work, Parsifal, the opera Nietzsche hated most (and which Mahler quotes at the end of his Third Symphonyj.f More than any other work by Wagner, Parsifal contains the call for a new, purified community.

The current interest of German Cultural Studies in Wagner's music and theoretical writings shows a remarkable lack of concern with the issue of agency behind the materials it analyzes. The relationship of Cultural Studies to Wagner is marked by a double bind. On the one hand, the dominant attitude is highly critical towards the composer and his audience at the time. On the other hand, however, Wagner remains the focus of intense

The German Quarterly 77.2(Spring2004) 188

scholarly interest. German Cultural Studies, in other words, seems unable to move beyond the canon of previous stages of German culture. To put it bluntly, scholars of the German cultural tradition love to hate Wagner." Although they are interested in the power dynamics underlying Wagner's work and will reconstruct that work's political agenda in detail, there is a remarkable indifference to, and perhaps even ignorance of, attempts from outside the late nineteenth-to early twentieth-century middle-class canon to subvert the power hierarchies inherent therein.

In contrast to Wagner, Gustav Mahler has drawn little attention from German Cultural Studies to date, despite the fact that his orchestral works are nowadays at least as popular and as frequently performed as Wagner's. From the beginning, prejudices against Mahler often concerned the literary material which his compositions employ. Even a contemporary critic complains that the texts Mahler selected were second-class literature: "Fragwurdige Lyrik Friedrich Ruckerts und fragwiirdige Wunderhorngedichte im angeblichen Volkstori." Some of these prejudices may still resound in contemporary scholarship, but there is more to this problem than simple bias. Unlike Wagner, Mahler did not leave any essays about the cultural, philosophical, and aesthetic ambitions informing his work, even though he spoke about these issues often to friends and colleagues. There are clear reasons for Mahler's reticence in these matters. During his lifetime, Mahler was famous as a conductor, not so much as a composer. From 1897 to 1907 he was musical director of the Wiener Hofoper; where two specific factors made his tenure controversial. First, there was the fact that he was a Jew. 1897, the year in which Mahler started his work as musical director of the Wiener Hofoper,was also the year in which Karl Lueger was elected mayor of Vienna after running on an openly anti-semitic agenda. Mahler's tenure at the Hofoper was continually disrupted by anti-semitic incidents.P Secondly, there was Mahler's work as a composer. Mahler was viewed by his opponents as someone who pursued his own interests as a composer at great cost to his main profession as a conductor in Vienna. Therefore, publicizing his ideas about music, literature, and culture could have created problems for him, since public pronouncements would have undoubtedly drawn attention to his ethnic background and his own musical agenda which is, as I will show, critical of Wagner's program.

The lack of an essayistic framework that explains the aesthetic and political agenda behind his works, however, should not keep us from asking which theoretical deliberations are at the roots of Mahler's own work. In the following pages, I reconstruct Mahler's position within the cultural and political debates of his time. I begin with some deliberations about the anti-semitic agenda underlying Wagner's music and Mahler's response to this agenda. My claim is that Mahler does not take issue with Wagner's anti-semitism directly, but focuses instead on the ways in which Wagner instrumentalizes a one-sided view of the German cultural tradition in order to push his nationalistic and conservative politics, particularly in his later works. Particularly relevant for my approach is the Early Romantic idea of a "new mythology" which plays a prominent role not only in Wagner's theoretical writings but also in those of Nietzsche. I will show that there are good reasons to assume that Mahler's music is also a response to the idea of a "new mythology," but that his productive reception of Romanticism, under the influence of Nietzsche's criticism of Wagner, emphasizes very different aspects of Romanticism than does Wagner. Ultimately, the theory that informs Mahler's compositions functions as a critique of Wagner's political and cultural agenda."

Wagner's operas do not directly articulate a political agenda, but rather translate political interests into the search for a "new mythology," or a new collective symbolism. I will elaborate on this early Romantic concept later; for the moment, it is sufficient to point out that for Wagner this new mythology is the vehicle for the creation of community, and, more specifically, a German national community. Whether consciously or not, Wagner reproduces a German pattern here. Facing political disappointments such as the debacle of the French Revolution, German authors and intellectuals (such as Goethe and Schiller, but also the Romantics) sought to compensate for the defeat of their political ideas by creating in art a forum that would allow them to remain active in the public domain while avoiding the pitfalls of everyday politics. Art functions as compensation for these intellectuals' lack of direct political engagement; it became an alternate route for pursuing political ends. The politicization of art and the aesthetization of politics in Wagner's operas are closely related (Kopnick 158-60). The blurring of the borders between art and politics creates a fundamental ambiguity in the concept of autonomy as it applies to Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk,

Wagner's anti-semitic agenda and its impact on German culture have helped define Mahler's relationship to Wagner as a composer and an essayist. Gender and race figure prominently not only in Wagner's theoretical writings but also in his operas. The texts of Wagner's operas are built around exemplary, heroic men. The plots of several of Wagner's works center on the possession of certain phallic symbols. Der Ringdes Nibelungen, for instance, is less about a ring and more about the possession of the sword "Nothung." In addition, the plot also contains a strong oedipal component. The creation of a positive masculine ideal in Wagner's work is only possible via the simultaneous creation of what George Mosse calls an effeminate and racially degenerate "countertype" (56-76). This "countertype" has a strong anti-semitic dimension in Wagner's work, both in his theoretical writings and in his com

positions, as has been demonstrated recently in studies by Paul Lawrence Rose (1992) and Marc Weiner (1997a).

Mahler was well aware of this anti-semitic subtext in Wagner's operas. The memoirs of his close friend Natalie Bauer-Lechner include an interesting reference to a Vienna performance of Wagner's Siegfried that Mahler conducted:

Im "Siegfried" Spielmann als neuer Mime. Obwohl er keineswegs unbedeutend, ja musikalisch wie darstellerisch charakteristisch und geistvoll war, so tat er leider des Guten zu viel, "wollte," wie Mahler voll Argersagte, "witziger als witzig sein und geriet dadurch vom Charakteristischen ins Parodistische, womit er der Rolle und sich den Garaus machte-denn ich werde ihm sofort wieder kundigen, Erist schon zu sehr durch den Theaterschlendrian verdorben. Das Argste an ihm ist das Mauscheln. Obwohl ich uberzeugt bin, daf diese Gestalt die leibhaftige, von Wagner gewollte Persiflageeines Juden ist (in allen Zugen, mit denen er sie ausstattete: der kleinlichen Gescheitheit, Habsucht und dem ganzen musikalisch wie textlich vortrefflichen Jargon), so darf das hier urn Gottes willen nicht ubertrieben und so dick aufgetragen werden, wie Spielmann es tat-noch dazu in Wien, an der 'k.k, Hofoper', ist es ja die helle Lacherlichkeit und den Wienern ein willkommener Skandal!

Ich weif, nur einen Mime (wir sahen gespannt auf ihn): und der bin ich! Da solltet ihr staunen, was alles in der Rolleliegt und wie ich es zutage fordern wollte!" (Bauer-Lechner 122)

Bauer-Lechner's memoirs show that Mahler had no illusions about the antisemitic stereotypes personified by Mime in Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen, in fact, he had no problem admitting that Mime could represent him. But the ease with which Mahler, armed with that knowledge, turns Wagner's anti-semitism against the singer Spielmann is astonishing. It is Mahler who chides Spielmann for his "Mauscheln," thereby using one of the dominant stereotypes about Jews.8 Also surprising is the way in which Mahler turns the insight that he himself is a target of Wagner's anti-semitism into something he seems to perceive as an opportunity-namely that he, Gustav Mahler, would be the ideal performer in the role of Mime. The quotation from BauerLechner's memoirs makes clear in which way Mahler did not wish to deal with the anti-semitic agenda underlying Wagner's art. Exposing this agenda in all its details would be counterproductive, and when Spielmann attempts to do just this, it means professional suicide. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to say that Mahler represses this aspect of the cultural environment in which he works. This raises the question, though, of how Mahler as a composer addresses the rampant anti-semitism of his time in the music he creates, albeit in a subtle and differentiated manner.

German Romanticism is one of the areas in which Mahler distinguishes himself from Wagner. For both Wagner and Mahler, German literary and philosophical Romanticism seems to have functioned as a catalyst, particularly the Romantic notion of a "new mythology" as a form of art that not only has its origins among the (German) people (Frank 1982, 218), but that is also written and composed for the (German) people. The "new mythology" of the Romantics was supposed to provide a new collective symbolism and in turn a new sense of community with nature as its foundation.? For them, this "new mythology" had a normative function, legitimizing certain ways of living and the concomitant social institutions.l? For a late Romantic like Richard Wagner, the "new mythology" was closely tied to the idea of a national community. Secondaryliterature on Wagner's theoretical writings has shown that the idea of a "new mythology" plays an important role in his thinking.11

Wagner's theoretical ceuvre is, however, but one of the sources where Mahler may have encountered traces of a Romantic search for a "new mythology." Another source is the work of Friedrich Nietzsche, which also makes frequent reference to the concept and relates it to Wagner. In his first lengthy and uncritical text about Wagner -the essay "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth," in section four of the Unzeitgemii~eBetrachtungen (1874) -Nietzsche touches upon a number of themes central to the Romantic philosophy of a "new mythology." Like the Romantics, Nietzsche bases his philosophy of art on a fundamental paradox. Wagner's work represents for Nietzsche a new form of art that is simultaneously a return to an older form, or to an older and more original way of creating art. 12 It is significant that nature plays a central role in the creation of this higher form of art. Wagner's music articulates for Nietzsche a return to nature that breaks down all artificial alienation and lack of understanding among humans (cf. Nietzsche 1: 456). He sees Wagner's art as intended for the general population rather than for intellectuals (ibid. 485). Finally, Nietzsche emphasizes the post-metaphysical aspect of Wagner's art, whereby myth is not the product or articulation of one specific idea; rather, myth is a form of thinking in itself (ibid.). According to Nietzsche, Wagner does not believe in an eternal, ideal order of things; consequently, he offers no utopia (ibid. 506). Such skepticism is also a feature of the Romantic program. It is not only an expression of the Romantics' doubts regarding Enlightenment ideals, but also a direct consequence of their radical philosophical insight into the subjective nature of all knowledge.

Without exaggeration, Nietzsche could be called a key figure in Gustav Mahler's intellectual development.l'' As a student, Mahler was a member of what was informally known as the "Nietzsche Society" of Vienna. This same group supplied Mahler (who in his student days was not exactly well off) with a piano that enabled him to work on his compositions. At the same time, though, Mahler was obliged to accompany the society's frequent performances of nationalistic songs (McGrath 1997, 226). While this gift was clearly a mixed blessing, one should not dismiss Mahler's participation in this very nationalistic student group as a purely opportunistic move. He

very well may have been attracted to the society's Nietzschean cultural criticism (cf. McGrath 1974,55), which at times may have superseded its nationalistic tendencies.

It is tempting to see a connection between Mahler's interest in the Romantic songs collected under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn and some of the statements Nietzsche made about them. In Die Geburt der Tragiidie (1872), Nietzsche reflects upon folk songs and explicitly mentions the collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn as a prototype and modern example of the Dionysian art that he considers far superior to the Apollonian epic forms of literature. One way of differentiating Apollonian from Dionysian art concerns their relation to nature. Apollonian art, according to Nietzsche, has lost its bond to nature and has become subjugated to random, man-made and therefore artificial rules. Dionysian art, however, has not lost its ties with nature. It is unmediated expression of both nature and a mirror of human nature. Folk songs exemplify this model because they privilege melody over text which in turn generates strong and rich images." In folk songs, according to Nietzsche, language seeks to mimic music rather than the world. Accordingly, language in folk songs is a direct and unmediated expression of nature itself, and not the product of the subject's attempt to recapture a lost experience in words. Nietzsche calls this the only possible relation between poetry and music (Nietzsche 1: 49).

From Mahler's comments to friends which document the origins of his Third Symphony, it is clear that he follows the aesthetic program outlined by Nietzsche in Die Geburt der Tragodie. Mahler originally intended to use natural imagery in the titles of the individual movements of the Third Symphony just as he had done previously in the First, pursuing the generative principle to which Nietzsche alludes. On a separate sheet together with a letter to Friedrich Lohron August 29, 1895, Mahler outlines the following structure for the Third Symphony:


I. Der Sommer marschiert ein.

II. Was mir die Blumen auf der Wiese erzahlen,

III. Was mir die Tiere im Walde erzahlen. IV Was mir die Nacht erzahlt. (Altsolo).

V Was mir die Morgenglocken erzahlen, (Frauenchor mit Altsolo).

VI. Was mir die Liebe erzahlt. Motto: >;Vater sieh an die Wunden mein! Kein Wesen la~ verloren sein«i

(Aus des Knaben Wunderhorn)

VII. Das himmlische Leben. (Sopransolo, humoristisch)15

Mahler's Third was clearly conceived to be an immediate expression of the sounds of nature itself. Elsewhere, Mahler refers to the Third as "immer und uberall Naturlaut" (Mahler 203; see also Eggebrecht 127ff.). The first five movements of Mahler's sketch in particular look like a straightforward realization of Nietzsche's program.

A number of other factors support the claim that Mahler was heavily influenced by Nietzsche while composing his Third Symphony. Mahler is said to have read Nietzsche particularly intensively during the composition period for the Third (McGrath 1974, 121). The clearest indication of that is the choice of title, namely Die frohliche Wissenschaft. Clearly, Mahler saw his symphony -at least at some point in its development -as a fulfillment of the programmatic statements in Nietzsche's eponymous text. Mahler's student membership in a society of Nietzsche enthusiasts finds its reflection in the Third Symphony. A last-minute insertion into the symphony's first movement shows strong similarities to a student song protesting the Austrian government's decision to dissolve the very same "Nietzsche Society."16 Additionally, Mahler is known to have visited Siegfried Lipiner, his old acquaintance from student days and one of the leading figures in Vienna's Nietzsche Society immediately after finishing the Third.

Mahler was doubtlessly interested in Nietzsche's philosophy perse, but he must have been intrigued specifically by Nietzsche's view of Wagner. Wagner was, of course, a catalyst for Nietzsche's thinking. Particularly in his later writings, Wagner represented for Nietzsche that which was wrong with German culture. After Nietzsche had proclaimed the death of God, it is Wagner who claims that God still exists. In other words, Wagner does not dare to draw the ultimate consequences of living in a post-metaphysical world. Nietzsche also fiercely criticizes the German nationalistic agenda that informs Wagner's later musical works and essays. This is especially clear in Nietzsche's summary of "Der FallWagner" in Ecce Homo(Nietzsche

6: 357-64). Additionally, Nietzsche takes issue with Wagner's anti-semitic agenda. Interestingly, recent Nietzsche scholarship has distanced itself sharply from the anti-semitic image of Nietzsche that dominated the reception of his work during the Third Reich. Some scholars argue that Nietzsche's attitude toward Jews is in essence a positive one.V Others, like Sander Gilman, point out that Nietzsche's thinking uses racial categories, but that Nietzsche himself takes the position of an anti-anti-semite -that is, of someone who opposes anti-semitism because of the political use certain nationalist groups make of it for their own benefit.l''

Other passages in Nietzsche's work indicate that he views Wagner's problematic side as an outgrowth of the ambiguities that mark German Romanticism itself.

-Was Goethe tiber Wagner gedacht haben wurde? -Goethe hat sich einmal die Frage vorgelegt, was die Gefahr sei, die tiber allen Romantikern schwebe: das Romantiker-Verhangnis. Seine Antwort ist: "am Wiederkauen sittlicher und religioser Absurditaten zu ersticken." Kurzer: Parsifal -(Nietzsche 6: 19)

This statement confirms Ernst Behler's observation that Nietzsche tends to identify Romanticism with its later proponents, for whom he has little sympathy, even though he recognizes the similarities between his own thinking and the writings of the Early Romantics, with whose agenda he could identify.'? One could read the above quotation as Nietzsche's commentary on the changes which the critical agenda of the Early Romantics underwent. The Romantics' idea behind a "new mythology" was most certainly not, or at least notinitially,"dieWiedereinfuhrungdesAberglaubens" (Frank1982,189).The turn to more dogmatic forms of religion is a relatively late phenomenon in the development of German Romanticism. While Early Romanticism also includes a religious dimension, it is far less dogmatic. Mahler's reception of Nietzsche in the context of the Third and Fourth Symphonies constitutes an attempt, as I will show, to integrate Nietzsche's critique of Wagner's turn to religion into his own art.

The first major difference between Mahler's and Wagner's interpretation of the legacy of German Romanticism concerns the concept of community. One of the few attempts to give a cultural-historical reading of Mahler's Third Symphony rather than a purely musicological one emphasizes that Mahler created "a Nietzschean framework to convey an idea of community that is expanded to embrace not only all of humanity but all levels of being in the world of nature" (McGrath 1997, 218). This is in itself already a critique of Wagner's ultra-nationalistic interpretation of the idea of a "new mythology." Friedrich Schlegel's notion of community, as formulated in his Rede aber die Mythologie (1800), transcended such a narrow and nationalistic vision. Instead, similar to Lessing, Schlegel, or Marx, he evokes the image of a mythology beyond the national, one which is truly universal (cf. Frank 1988, 209). Mahler is significantly closer to Schlegel's notion of community than to Wagner's.

My own ideas about Mahler's vision of a new mythology tend, however, in a somewhat different direction. In my view, Mahler intends to offer a vision of community while simultaneously questioning that very same notion. It is, for instance, significant that Mahler took the text for the fourth movement of his Third Symphony from the final section of the last part of Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra (cf. Nietzsche 4: 404). Manfred Frank has pointed out that Nietzsche's text has been understood (by Heidegger, among others) as an exemplary text for a "new mythology" (Frank 1988, 22). Indeed, Zarathustra presents a complex and highly symbolic language whose purpose is to create a new type of community. Appropriately, much of Zarathustra has the form of a sermon. Zarathustra speaks to his fellow citizens in order to enlighten them about his post-metaphysical agenda, and to unify them in the name of his philosophy of life. But Also sprach Zarathustra contains a darker side, too. It is, in a sense, a document of desperation, a text in which Zarathustra/Nietzsche acknowledges his feelings of isolation and loneliness. As such, it increasingly turns into a conversation of Zarathustra with himself, rather than a sermon.

A primary example of this darker side of Alsosprach Zarathustra is "Zarathustras Mitternachtslied" ["Zarathustra's Midnight Song"], which Mahler chooses for the fourth movement of his Third Symphony (cf. Nietzsche 4: 404).

Oh Mensch! GibAcht! Zarathustras Mitternachtslied


Oh Mensch! GibAcht! Wasspricht dietiefeMitternacht? Ich schlief! AustiefemTraum bin ich erwacht! DieWeltist tief! Und tieferalsderTaggedachtl Tiefist ihr Weh! Lust tiefernoch als Herzeleid! Wehspricht:Vergeh! Doch aileLustwill Ewigkeit, Will tiefetiefeEwigkeit.

AselsewhereintheThirdand FourthSymphonies,Mahler'suseoftextisconsciously discontinuous and fragmentary. The"Mitternachtslied" set to music illustrates a somber frame of mind. In contrast, the fifth movement of the same symphony, with text excerpted from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, is lighthearted. This juxtaposition of musical moods was a subject of controversy among Mahler's contemporaries. Alphons Diepenbrock, a Dutch composer and conductor who in later years was Mahler's friend, initially responded quite critically to the idea of pairing a text by Nietzsche with lyrics from Des Knaben Wunderhorn ( la Grange 1995,642; Franklin 28). In Schiller's terminology, Nietzsche's text is clearly "sentimental" and points to the problematic nature of all sentimental poetry. The narrator has just woken up, and he desires to return to his previous state of sleep and dream. The Wunderhorn-text of the fifth movement, on the other hand, would be classified by Schiller's meta-poetics as "naive," as an unbroken and unmediated expression of the subject's desire. Musicologist Peter Franklin summarizes the differences between the fourth and the fifth movements of the Third Symphony as follows: "The elaborate artifice of the previous [i.e., fourth] movement's song of individuated inwardness is now replaced by a public celebration-a musical party to which everyone has been invited, from the local church choir to the village band." (70) Thus, Mahler's combination of lyrics and music produces a diverse, discontinuous, and fragmentary work. For the Romantics, the fragment was not merely an important literary form, but the key element of their worldview.ForEarlyRomanticslikeSchlegeland Novalis, afragmentary way of thinking and writing was the only appropriate response to the metaphysical and political crises of their time, crises that materialized in the philosophical Idealism of Kant and Fichte and the French Revolution. Consequently, the fragment becomes the embodiment of modernity (cf. Lacoue-Labarthe/ Nancy 40).

Wagner not only suppresses this critical aspect of early Romanticism in favor of the later Romantics' turn toward nationalism and religion in a dogmatic sense (the Early Romantics' religious experience was highly undogmatic, and quite close to the Enlightenment's religious relativism). For Wagner, the fragmentary takes on a rather different interpretation. He views it as a Jewish trait in the music of his time. In "Das Judentum in der Musik," Wagner characterizes Mendelssohn as the prototype of the assimilated Jew cut off from his native culture. Paul Lawrence Rose summarizes Wagner's argument as follows:

In his new environment, the Jew can only mimic; but unfortunately for him the degeneration of German art into mere technique has made it easy for the mimicking, formalistic Jewish artist to succeed. Thus Judaized, German art has been severed from its cultural roots and become "entirelyloveless," a perfect reflection of [ewishness itself. Worse, even the 'cultivated' or converted Jew who has abandoned Judaism is still, [aute demieux, forced back, for inspiration, on to this horrible tradition of synagogue music. The result is that his music has emerged as a confusion of styles, as chaotic formalism -cold indifferent and sterile -without genuine feeling or passion.i?

"Chaotic formalism" and "confusion of styles" have indeed long been stereotypes used to dismiss Mahler's work-'! But the fragmentary and diverse character of his texts and music is intentional, neither a sign of musical inferiority nor of an inability to compose a stylistically unified piece of music. Mahler intentionally foregrounds those characteristics in his music which Wagner deems Jewish.

The same phenomenon can be observed in Mahler's use of the female voice. As Marc Weiner has discussed extensively, Wagner deploys voice as an "acoustical icon of race and nation" (Weiner 1997a, 105). In Wagner's musical works, men who sound or sing like women -such as Mime in Der Ring des Nibelungen -represent the degenerate opposites of the Germanic heroes. To secure his heroes' masculinity relative to the higher pitched, "degenerate" voices, Wagner even created "a new kind of singer, never before heard on the operatic stage, theHeldentenor" (ibid. 164), who sings lower than a regular tenor. In contrast, the part of Zarathustra in the fourth movement and the part of Saint Peter in the fifth movement of Mahler's Third Symphony are to be performed by a low female voice; they are written for contralto (Alt) rather than for a man's voice.22 Mahler himself was at least to some extent aware of a gendered agenda underlying this symphony. In a letter to Arnold Berliner written while composing the Third, Mahler poses a question doubtlessly intended in jest: whether Berliner still suffers from misogyny, or whether Mahler's "Frohliche Wissenschaft" -which was at that time the working title of the Third -has had its effect on him. 23

The issue of voice is, however, more complex in Mahler's composition, as the l~rmer Kinder Bettler-Lied" ["Poor Children's Begging-Song"] demonstrates. Mahler took the text for this song from Des Knaben Wunderhorn. 24 It appears in the fifth movement of the Third Symphony:

"Armer Kinder Bettler-Lied"

KNABENCHOR Bimmbamm, bimm bamm ...

FRAUENCHOR EssungendreiEngel einen su~en Gesang, Mit Freuden es selig in den Himmelklang. Sie jauchztenfrohlich dabei, Dafs Petrus seivonSundenfrei.

UndalsderHerrJesus zuTische saf], Mit seinenzwolf[ungern dasAbendmahl a~, DasprachderHerrJesus: Was stehstdudenn hier? Wennichdichanseh',soweinestdu mir.


Undsollt'ichnichtweinen,dugutigerGott ...

FRAUENCHOR Du sollstjanichtweinenl


Ichhabeubertretendiezehn Cebot,

Ichgeheund weine jabitterlich,

Achkommund erbarmedichubermich.


Hastdu dennubertretendiezehen Gebot,

Sofall aufdie Knie undbetezuGott!

Liebe nur Gott in aIle Zeit, Sowirstduerlangendiehimmlische Freud!

Diehimmlische Freud, dieselige Stadt; Diehimmlische Freud, diekeinEndemehrhat. Diehimmlische Freude war Petro bereit' Durch[esumund allenzur Seligkeit.

In spite of the differences between this movement with text from Des Knaben Wunderhorn andthe previousonewithtext fromAlso sprach Zarathustra, there arealsoformalandthematic continuities establishedbythe useofvoice inboth.Forinstance,thecontralto fromthe fourth movement singsthepart of Saint Peter in the fifth, and while the fourth movement thematizes Zarathustra'sexistentialloneliness, thefifthmovementoffershimasenseof belonging. Atfirstsight,the text ofthe fifthmovement seemstoarticulatea straightforward religious message. HewhohasstrayedfromGod,hewhohas sinnedagainsttheTenCommandments, willalwaysbewelcomedbackinto the collective (represented by the women's choir), if he so desires. The text thus articulatesadesireforanewcommunitysimilartothedesireunderlying the Romanticideaofa"newmythology."Butwhy isthe songentitled '~rmer KinderBettler-Lied"?Thetextisalsonot justadialoguebetweenthecontralto (SaintPeter)andthewomen's choir,butisaccompaniedbythe"bimmbamm" soundsofaboys' choir. Isthetext meant tobeadialoguebetweenthreepartners? Or does the third party as represented by the boys' choir somehow supersedethe other two -do the other two parts act as figures in the imagination of the third?

These questions about the fifth movement of the Third Symphony may beansweredmorefullybyfirstexamininglyricsinthefourth movementof theFourthSymphony.Mahleroriginallyintended thismovement tobethe seventh and final part of the Third Symphony (as is clear from the initial sketch for the Third that accompanies his letter to Friedrich Lohr). Here, Mahler again borrows a text from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, and entitles it "Das himmlische Leben" ["The Heavenly Life"] 25:

"Das himmlische Leben"

Wirgeniefsen diehimmlischen Freuden, Drum tun wir dasIrdische meiden, Kein weltlichCetummel Hart man nicht im Himmel, Lebtalles in sanftesterRuh; Wirfuhrenein englisches Leben, Sinddennochganzlustigdaneben, Wirtanzen und springen, Wirhupfenund singen,

SanktPeter im Himmelsieht zu.

Johannes das Lammlein auslasset, Der MetzgerHerodes drauf passet, Wrrfuhreneingeduldigs, Unschuldigs, geduldigs, Einliebliches Lammlein zum Tod. SanktLukasdenOchsentut schlachten Ohn einigs Bedenken und Achten, DerWein kostkeinHeller 1mhimmlischen Keller, DieEngel, diebacken dasBrot.

Gut Krauter von allerhand Arten, Diewachsenim himmlischen Garten, Gut Spargel, Fisolen, Und was wir nur wollen, Ganze Schussel vollsinduns bereit. GutApfel, gutBirnundgut Trauben, DieGartner, diealles erlauben. Willst Rehbock, willst Hasen'( AufoffnerStrafsen ZurKuche sielaufenherbei.

Sollt etwa ein Fasttagankommen, DieFische mit Freuden anschwommen, Da laufet Sankt Peter Mit Netz und mit Koder Zum himmlischen Weiher hinein; Willst Karpfen, willstHecht,willst Forellen, Gut Stockfisch und frische Sardellen? [SanktLorenz hat mussen SeinLeben einbufsen.] SanktMarthadieKochin muf sein.

Kein Musil<istjanichtauf Erden, Dieunsrerverglichen kannwerden, EilftausendJungfrauen Zu tanzen sichtrauen, Sankt Ursula selbst dazu lacht, Cacilia mit ihrenVerwandten Sindtreffliche Hofmusikanten, Dieenglischen Stimmen ErmunterndieSinnen, Dalsalles fur Freuden erwachtl

In a bold move in his last recording of the Fourth, Leonard Bernstein replaced

the woman's voice for which the part was originally written with that of a child. One could argue that the text calls for this, as the narrative perspective in the song is clearly that of a child and the content a child's fantasy; Mahler himself apparently recommended that the soprano soloist sing the part as if it were performed by a child (cf. de la Grange 1995, 771). To emphasize this child-like perspective, Mahler even considered the title "~s mir das Kinderzahl:" (Mahler 150) for this movement.

Mahler scholars have proposed the term "irony" to describe the attitude behind the last movement of the Fourth Symphony.P In the Romantic notion of "irony" according to Early Romantic philosophy, "[Ejtwas ironisch sagen heifst, es durch die Weise, wie es gesagt ist, auch wieder zunlcknehmen" (Frank 1989,373, and also 311,345,361,364). This is exactly the case in "Das himmlische Leben." Mahler's instructions to use a child-like female voice raises the question of whether the utopian moment is intended seriously and whether the listeners were to consciously perceive it as a child's fantasy, or both at once. The expression of two diametrically opposed but equally valid feelings-another stylistic marker of early Romantic irony27is clearly recognizable here in Mahler's Fourth. A telling moment with regard to this irony is the passage in the song when the child sings of the lamb's slaughter ("Wir fuhren ein geduldigs, / Unschuldigs, geduldigs, / Ein liebliches Lammlein zum Tod.").28 The seemingly happy atmosphere is at least briefly called into question by the words sung by the fantasizing child. Saint Lucas's killing of the ox is briefly mentioned, but while the voice sings of other heavenly delights ("Der Wein kost kein Heller / Im himmlischen Keller, / Die Engel, die backen das Brot"), the horns in the back of the orchestra mimic the sounds of the dying ox.29In sum, the idea of heaven and the concomitant notion of community in "Das himmlische Leben" are seriously called into question by the song's underlying irony.l"

Another aspect in which Mahler follows Nietzsche's critique of Wagner is the emphasis on psychology to counter Wagner's use of myth, as indicated by the subtitle of Nietzsche contra Wagner which reads 'Aktenstucke eines Psychologen" (cf. Nietzsche 6: 415). By foregrounding that all of the religious imagery in the fourth movement of the Fourth Symphony is the product of a child's fantasy, Mahler comes remarkably close to insights that Freud would later develop in his essay "Der Dichter und das Phantasieren" (1908). Freud not only sees children's playas a precursor of poetic activity; he insists that it reveals something about the elementary compensatory function of fantasy -which is necessary but always deficient -in high art. Consequently, the study of the child's fantasy world teaches us about basic aspects of our own psychic life.31 Here, too, Mahler follows the aesthetic philosophy of the [enaRomantics. Within the program of Early Romanticism, irony was seen as an approach which allowed art to reflect its own constructedness.F

Recalling that the notion of a "new mythology" had a truly programmatic meaning for the Early Romantics, as they desired to return to the origins of all art precisely in order to renew art, it is tempting to read the last movement of Mahler's Fourth Symphony as much more than the lighthearted conclusion of an individual's search for community, and to interpret it as a programmatic statement about the origins of art in general and its (psychological) functions for the individual. But Mahler's use of irony also illustrates Nietzsche's philosophical point that a return to religion, to the old mythologies, can only be illusory. Only children can hold such a belief, while adults will have to accept the conditions of a post-metaphysical age. In the end, Mahler decided not to use "Das himmlische Leben" for his Third Symphony, but rather included it in the Fourth. Bernstein's interpretation of the Fourth's final movement, however, sheds new light on the fifth movement of the Third. Following Bernstein's reading, the "bimm bamm" of the boys' choir accompanying that song is neither a simple ornament nor meant to evoke a certain atmosphere, but a means to articulate a fundamental ambivalence toward what initially seems to be the song's central message. Mahler constructs a rupture between sound and content, between music and text. 33 In the end, sound prevails over text. "Voice"is the preferred medium in which Mahler expresses the ambiguities that are at the root of his art. Due to its indeterminate status between sound and text, "voice" is for Mahler the ultimate place of competing visions and ideologies. Rather than advocating a specific ideology, as Wagner intended to do with his "Heldentenor," Mahler uses women's and children's voices to destabilize belief systems. The Third Symphony doubtlessly critiques Wagner's explicit use of religious imagery in Parsifal (which Mahler, as mentioned earlier, quotes in the sixth and final movement of the Third). Furthermore, the ironic interpretation proposed here would also place Mahler's conversion to Catholicism, which occurred soon after he finished the Third, in a somewhat different light.

A reading of Mahler's approach as ironic is supported by documents from his correspondence and some of the other unpublished, private materials related to the Third and Fourth Symphonies. Initially, the sixth and last movement of the Third Symphony was intended to have a motto that now can only be found among the notes in Mahler's own score of the symphony (Franklin 72, 98) and in his correspondence with friends (cf. Mahler 151). The composer also took this motto from Des Knaben Wunderhorn: "Vater, sieh an die Wunden mein! / Kein Wesen lass verloren sein!"34 This is a remarkably dark statement following the lighthearted fifth movement, but it seems appropriate for the somber mood of the last movement of the Third Symphony in general. The motto indicates that Mahler had internalized one of the most persistent anti-semitic stereotypes -that of the wounded Jewish body. It also provokes a reassessment of Mahler's motivation to turn to religion (i.e., of his choice for Catholicism). At the root of Mahler's conversion lay a deep feeling of woundedness and inferiority which points to a form of Jewish self-hatred at the core of Mahler's project. This discourse of self-hatred emerges in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and has been interpreted by Sander Gilman as a side effect of an internalization of discourses that marginalize Jews in a culture in which they strive for assimilation (cf. Gilman 286-308). Mahler's ironic identification with the German cultural tradition may have come at a greater cost than a superficial reading of his work would suggest.

In the preceding pages, I have discussed the role of German Romanticism in the development of German nationalism in the nineteenth century. German Romanticism has been assigned some culpability for several ominous aspects of German political history, and rightfully so. But it is also a less monolithic movement than is often assumed. While its texts mediated a new national symbolism, Early German Romanticism in particular contradicts or at least questions those same nationalist tendencies. As a discursive formation, Romanticism supplied reactionary ideologies with an appropriate vocabulary (Frank 1982, 219), but it also helped Mahler to question such often racist and sexist political constructions.

These Romantic ambiguities are problematized and acted out, as I hope to have shown, in Mahler's critical engagement with the musical and theoreticallegacy of Wagner. Instead of canonical mythical narratives, Mahler uses simple and unpretentious folk songs in his musical quest for a "new mythology." In opposition to Wagner's emphasis on nationalism, Mahler propagates a much broader concept of community, embracing all of humanity or even, as McGrath suggests, all forms of life. In contrast to Wagner's use of effeminate male voices in the service of racial stereotyping, Mahler conceives of "feminine" elements and the feminization of the male voice as something positive. While Wagner prefers continuous, uninterrupted narratives, Mahler uses diverse fragmentary narrative forms and simultaneously juxtaposes a variety of musical moods. Mahler counters Wagner's dogmatic use of religious imagery in later works with a fundamentally ironic attitude toward religion. It has often been suggested that Wagner's work is a response to the challenges of philosophical modernity, i.e., to the attempt to live in a world without metaphysical certainties. Nietzsche's early reflections on Wagner, especially in Unzeitgemaf5e Betrachtungen, certainly seem to suggest this. The same could be said of Mahler, who in the early stages of his work on the Third Symphony wanted to compose a programmatic Nietzschean piece. However, in the end, the two composers come up with fundamentally different responses to the modern condition. While Wagner, in his later works such as Parsifal, attempts to make his audience forget about the uncertainties inherent in the modern condition, Mahler embraces these same uncertainties, and makes them a fundamental part of his aesthetic program.

Wagner actively sought the public sphere in order to present his latest thoughts and theories. As a Jew in fin-de-siec/e Vienna, Mahler did not have that option. There is an uncanny discrepancy between the cultural-political implications of the material with which Mahler worked -as a conductor he performed Wagner's operas many times -and his public silence concerning these implications. There is no doubt that Mahler was heavily influenced by Wagner and that as a conductor he contributed much to the popularity of Wagner's music.3sNevertheless, I believe, it would be wrong to claim that Mahler "repressed" the anti-semitic side of Wagner's music.I? While it is true that Mahler rarely addressed Wagner's anti-semitism directly and seemed remarkably unresentful toward Wagner, his own symphonies articulate positions of resistance against the nationalistic and racist aspects of Wagner's agenda. Mahler is highly critical of Wagner's efforts to turn art into a cult, the concert hall into a pilgrimage site, and to promote an attitude of submission instead of critical reflection among the audience. With this, I do not wish to suggest that contemporary scholars should stop tracing the effects of Wagner's aesthetic-political agenda, including its gendered and racist aspects, on his art or on German cultural history in general. But the traces of this agenda are not exclusively visible in Wagner's own work and its reception. Mahler's music and the lyrics it contains also form an important part of the legacy of German Romanticism. Approaching Mahler's work from this perspective may ultimately lead to more complex and challenging readings of the German cultural tradition.


1 Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the Kentucky Foreign Language Conference (April 1999) and at the University of Illinois; I also had the opportunity to discuss it as part of the German Studies Workshop at Vanderbilt University. I would like to thank Laurie Johnson, Lutz Koepnick, and Meike Werner for their helpful comments.

2 David Levin points to the interesting paradox that the saga of the Nibelungs was both extremely popular and at the same time considered to be part of high culture. In the program book to his film on the Nibelungs, Fritz Lang problematized its elitist status in German culture (97).

3 Cf. McGrath 1974, 159.

4 For a sophisticated and complex account of the psychological dimensions underlying Wagner research today see Weiner 2000,342-62. 5 Hans Mayer, quoted in Eggebrecht 123. 6 See de la Grange (1995, 1999) for a detailed reconstruction of the many anti-se

mitic incidents surrounding Mahler's tenure at the Vienna Hofoper from 1897-1907.

7 One should distinguish between the cultural analysis which I propose here and a purely musicological inquiry into the relationship between Mahler and Wagner. I do not exclude the possibility that Mahler's fascination with Wagner had musicological grounds. In comparison to the more traditionally oriented Brahms, Wagner's music was truly progressive, even if it represented a conservative ideological agenda. Cf. de la Grange (1973,44,45) for an overview of the musicological debates in Mahler's student days, and Mahler's position vis-a.-visWagner in the context of these debates.

8 Cf. Gilman 139: II [Mauscheln] is the use of altered syntax and bits of Hebrew vocabulary and a specific pattern of gestures to represent the spoken language of the Jews. What is stressed is the specifically "[ewish" intonation, the mode of articulation as well as the semantic context." Mahler's remarks also confirm Gilman's insight that "Mauscheln was a quality of language and discourse that Jews perceived as a major problem in their true and total acceptance within the German community" (ibid. 141).

9 Both the concept of "allgemeine Symbolik" and the idea of nature as the basis for collective symbolism were first articulated by Schelling (Frank 1982, 198 and 201).

10 Cf. Frank 1988, 16; see also Frank 1982/ 207.

11 See Frank 1982, 217-31.

12 It is clear that Wagner's work here serves as illustration of what Nietzsche had called "Dionysian" art inDie Geburt der Tragodie, the text Nietzsche published immediately before hisUnzeitgema~e Betrachtungen. Frank has pointed out many parallels between the Romantic concept of a "new mythology" and Nietzsche's ideas in this text; in fact, DieGeburt derTragodie ends with Nietzsche's programmatic callforarebirthof Germanmyth,whichheseesrealizedinWagner(cf.Nietzsche1:147;Frank 1988,49).

13 An extensive analysis of Nietzsche's importance for Mahler, emphasizing especially the thematic affinities between both, can be found in Nikkels.

141l Wer eine Sammlung von Volksliedern z.B. des Knaben Wunderhorn auf diese Theorie hin ansieht, der wird unzahlige Beispiele finden, wie die fortwahrend gebarende Melodie Bilderfunken urn sich ausspruht: die in ihrer Buntheit, ihrem jahen Wechsel, ja ihrem tollen Sichubersturzen eine dem epischen Scheine und seinem ruhigen Fortstromen wildfremde Kraft offenbaren." (Nietzsche 1: 49) At times, Nietzsche seems close to Friedrich Schiller's dichotomy between naive and sentimental forms of art, which had a great impact on the Romantic philosophy of art in general. To support his argument, Nietzsche claims that melody is "das bei weitem wichtigere und nothwendigere in der naiven Schatzung des Volkes" (ibid. 48).

15Mahler151.Otherversionsofthis structureofthe ThirdSymphonycanbefound in other letters (ibid. 149,188,196), and in Bauer-Lechner'sErinnerungen (36,38). Some of the titles of the individual movements can also been found in the original, unpublished score for the symphony; cf. "The 1896 manuscript and the first published score: Unpublished or subsequently omitted directions and annotations" (Franklin 91-99). Later Mahler severely questions the relevance of these titles, which may explain why he rejected them for the printed version: "[eneTitel waren von mir seinerzeit ein Versuch, eben fur Nichtmusiker einen Anhaltspunkt und Wegweiser fur den Gedanken-oder vielmehr Stimmungsgehalt der einzelnen Satze und fur das Verstandnis derselbenzueinanderund zumGanzenzugeben.Dafsesmirnichtgelungenist(wiees ja in derTat nie gelingen kann) und blof zu Milsdeutungen schlimmster Sorte gefuhrt hat, ist mir leider allzubald klar geworden" (Mahler 297).

16 Cf. McGrath 1997, 229f. and Franklin 81.

17Cf. Jacob Golomb (ed.), Nietzsche andjewish Culture, and especially the contribution of Weaver Santaniello, IIAPost-Holocaust Re-Examination of Nietzsche and the Jews: Vis-a-vis Christendom and Nazism," ibid. 21-54.

18Cf. Gilman, "Heine, Nietzsche, and the Idea of the [ew" 79, in Golomb, 76-100. Like Gilman, Marc Weiner points to Nietzsche's ambiguous attitude toward Jews (Weiner 1997b, 258). Gilman's observation concerning Nietzsche's anti-anti-semitism can be supported by looking at Nietzsche's writings on Wagner. In Nietzsche contra Wagner, Nietzsche summarizes concisely what led to his break with Wagner: "Schon im Sommer, mitten in der Zeit der ersten Festspiele, nahm ich bei mir von Wagnern Abschied. Ich vertrage nichts Zweideutiges; seitdem Wagner in Deutschland war, condescendirte er Schritt fur Schritt zu Allem, was ich verachte-selbst zum Antisemitismus... Eswarinder Thatdamals diehochsteZeit,Abschied zunehmen:alsbald schon bekam ich den Beweis dafur, Richard Wagner, scheinbar der Siegreichste, in Wahrheit ein morsch gewordner verzweifelter decadent, sank plotzlich, hulflos und zerbrochen, vor dem christlichen Kreuze nieder ... " (Nietzsche 6: 431f.). All three elements identified above: Wagner's return to Christianity, his identification with German nationalism, and anti-semitism, are contained in this segment.

19Cf.Behler65ff.Azade Seyhan, according to whomNietzscheis II a reluctant heir to Romantic Idealism yet represents in full measure the paradoxical and ironic vision of early Romanticism," sees Nietzsche's work as a "Re-vision of Romanticism's Critical Agenda" (136, 137); Seyhan is particularly interested in the destabilization of representation-the insight that every act of representation creates a reality of its own instead of referring to a world of represented objects-which characterizes both the philosophy of the Early Romantics and Nietzsche's thinking (137-52).

2oRose 82. See also [ens Malte Fischer's comprehensive introduction to Wagner's text in Richard Wagners IIDas [udentum in der Musik. II

21 Cf. Fischer, "Custav Mahler und das»Judentum in der Musik-" 667, 668. Interestingly, Fischer points out that these stereotypes regarding Mahler's music by no means disappearedafter1945,eventhoughtheanti-semiticcontextwasremoved (ibid.668).

22 In so doing, Mahler helps reveal an ambiguity in Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra, the text in which Nietzsche introduces the concept of the "Ubermensch." Zarathustra is often given a gendered and racial reading, but Mahler's work highlights those moments in Zarathustra in which such a masculine and/or racial ideal is questioned. This strategy of revealing ambiguities in what initially appear to be the monolithic ideologies of NietzschelWagner is a broader phenomenon, and not typical of Mahler alone; cf. Weiner 1997b.

11Wirktmeine frohlicheWissenschaft,einwenignach beiIhnen,odersindSienach wie vor misogyn?" (Mahler 152).

24Arnim/Brentano 3: 77f. There are some minor differences between the version in Des Knaben Wunderhorn and Mahler's. Most importantly, Mahler adds the "bimm bamm" refrain and the line "Du sollst ja nicht weinen" (Frauenchor).

25Arnim/Brentano 1: 365f. In Des Knaben Wunderhorn the song is titled "Der Himmel hangt voll Geigen."

26Cf. Nowak 202, see also de la Grange 1995, 772.

27Frank1989, 389. Interestingly, Frank illustrates his understanding of Romantic "irony" extensively with musical examples, ibid. 391-97. In their musical adaptations of Early Romantic poetry, Mendelssohn and Brahms used the contrast between con

tent on the one hand and voice and music on the other hand in order to express these poems' irony.

28 Mahler did suppress two lines (bracketed in my reproduction of the text) that would have emphasized the tragic aspect of the poem even more ("Sankt Lorenz hat mussen / Sein Leben einbufsen"). The fact that the song's fundamental ambiguity was important to Mahler is further clear from the emphasis on the word "Tod" in the lines "Wir fuhren ein geduldigs, / Geduldigs, unschuldigs, / Ein liebliches Lammlein zum Tod." Thelastwordisemphasizedthroughthe suddenlysinkingvoiceofthe soprano.

29 This observation speaks in favor of a more modernistic approach to performing Mahler's symphonies which emphasizes contrasts, dissonance, polyphony and is favored by some younger conductors, rather than the Late Romantic approach favored by previous generations of conductors which aims for a harmonious, unitary sound.

30 Mahler's composition follows the basic rules of Romantic irony in other respects as well. The song's irony concerns absolute ideas and values (cf. Frank 1989, 301; Strohschneider-Kohrs 85). Irony is achieved by a conscious creation of an atmosphere of joy ("Heiterkeit") (Frank 1989, 336, 341, 344, 371). Romantic irony expresses paradoxes (ibid. 352).

31Similarly,NikeWagner(1998)argues thatare-readingofWagner's workfrom the perspective of [in-de-siecle Vienna (Freud, Weininger) can indeed lead to an interesting and much more critical view of Wagner.

32Cf. Strohschneider-Kohrs 87: "Die Ironie-so Hi~t sich mit knappem Hinweis ihr Gesamtsinn und ihre Funktion bestimmen und deuten-ist Mittel der Selbstreprasentation von Kunst."

33Wagner, on the contrary,aimed fora unityoftextand music, somethinghecalled "Wort-Tonsprache." Initially, he privileged text, later he privileged sound (cf. MeyerKalkus 173 and 188).

34 There is no exact match for this 'quotation' in Des Knaben Wunderhorn. Mahler most likely misremembered (or intentionally rewrote?) some lines from the poem "Erlosung":

Er l osung


Mein Kind, sieh an die Bruste mein,

KeinSunder la~ verloren sein.

Christus Mutter, sieh an die Wunden, Die ich fur dein Sund trag alie Stunden. Vater, la~ dir die Wunden mein Ein Opfer fur die Sunde sein.

Va ter Sohn, lieberSohn mein, Alleswas du begehrst,dassoliseyn.

35 Cf. Susanne Vi11297, 300, 301, 302.

36Inaresponseto SusanneVill'spaper,which wasacontributiontoacolloquiumat Bayreuth on "RichardWagner and the Jews" (August 6-11,1998), [ens Malte Fischer claimsthat Mahlerrefusedto acknowledgeWagner'shatredofJews,andheproposes the psychologicalterm"repression" ("Verdrangung") tocharacterizeMahler'sattitude (ibid. 309).

Works Cited

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Bauer-Lechner, Natalie. Gustav Mahler in den Erinnerungen von Natalie Bauer-Lechner. Ed. Herbert Killian, annotations Knud Martner. Revised ed. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Karl DieterWagner, 1984.

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Suhrkamp, 1989.

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(1897-1904). Oxford: Oxford V~ 1995. --. Gustav Mahler. Volume 3.Vienna: Triumph andDisillusion (1904-1907). Oxford: Ox

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