Exorcising the Devil from Thomas Mann's "Doktor Faustus"

by Karin L. Crawford
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Title:
Exorcising the Devil from Thomas Mann's "Doktor Faustus"
Author:
Karin L. Crawford
Year: 
2003
Publication: 
The German Quarterly
Volume: 
76
Issue: 
2
Start Page: 
168
End Page: 
182
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Language: 
English
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Abstract:

KARIN L. CRAWFORD

University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign

Exorcising the Devil from Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus

Standard readings of Doktor Faustus involve intratextual interpretations of the Faust passage at the center of the novel and thereby accept the connection the narrator Serenus Zeitblom draws among love, disease, and the devil. The political-theological meta- phor of the novel rests on this analogy: Adri- aniFaust as Germany, the devil as the Nazi regime.' This reading is generally accorded some validity, for Adrian's severe migraines and moments of compositional creativity seem to mirror events in German history in the novel's multileveled temporality. In this context, Adrian exemplifies the artist's de- scent into an aesthetic barbarism that paral- lels the political barbarism of his country.

But it is time we exorcise the devil from Mann's Doktor Faustus because there is no devil in the novel. Adrian's life is not an alle- gory for a nation in league with the devil on its descent into barbarism. The demonic par- allel is more appropriately drawn, if at all, with Serenus, for Serenus's biography re- sembles that of Goethe's Faust. He is the hu- manist doctor who has an affairwith a lower class woman and later marries Helen, and he sees the devil in his friend as well as in Ger- man politics and culture. Through an inter-textual interpretation and a close reading of the novel, I demonstrate that the demonic narrative is untenable. On my reading, Mann's Doktor Faustus is not a metaphorical damnation of Germany for having entered into apact with the devil, i.e., with Hitler and the Nazi regime. Rather, the novel seeks to deliver a message of compassionate love, and to demonstrate the political and ethicalurgency of its message.

My reading of Doktor Faustus builds on queer studies of Mann by Gerhard Hkle, Anthony Heilbut and others who have uncovered the gay subtext of Mann's fiction. According to these analyses, Serenus clearly loves Adrian and, although Adrian does not return Serenus's love, he does love other men. Love is seen here as the primary moti- vator for the writing of the biography and as its principle subject. While my approach is informed by these studies, I am more inter- ested in the narrative structure, its potential to elicit a response of caring love from the reader, and in the political implications of this aesthetic response. Thus, unlike queer readings which typically approach Mann's fiction biographicall~ I begin with the fic- tional subtext and move to love and politics.

While I offer a new reading of the novel that removes Adrian's music from a Faust- ian and ademonic context, I still engage with the questions that continue to shape scholar- ship on the novel: Mann's relationship to "tradition" (Reed),the debate over whether the novel is modernist or Romantic (Ber- man, Vaget, "Mann, Joyce, Wagner"), and the relationship of art to evil in its quest for innovation (Goldman, Heller, Reed). I sim- ply shift the focus and the perspective from which these questions are considered. In my analysis, Serenus represents the Romantic, demonic tradition that Mann seeks to reject, while Adrian offers a new, humanist, mod- ernist alternative that promises subjective expression, liberation, and community be- yond suffering.

While the literary and musical models certainly do diverge in Mann's portrayal of

The German Quarterly 76.2 (Spring 2003) 168

CRAWFORD:

Doktor Faustus

Adrian's musical text as superior to Sere- nus's Faustian narrative, the novel's narra- tive structure and the emotions elicited by the narrative (albeit musical) language are the more salient vehicles for Mann's ethical and political argument. According to Martha Nussbaum, emotional content and experi- ence lend literature its particularity. She dis- tinguishes literature from moral philosophy in that literature communicates moral truths through "love's knowledge" (40,45 48h2 When we engage emotionally with nov- els -in Nussbaum's terms, when we allow them to become our friends literature be- comes a realm of moral education, for litera- ture itself often searches for answers to the question "how to live" and so enables us to explore that question in the course of reading (23-24,2627). Moral truths are communi- cated to the reader in the "human content" of the story-in the fictional characters' ex- periences of pain, love, friendship (22, 48, 280-81). When we suspend our philosophical skepticism-and, she might add, theoretical apparati--and empathize with them, we learn truths about ourselves. ORen these truths are communicated in stories about love or lost love. She offers Proust's The Fugztive as an example of how moral knowledge may be ac- quired through reading fiction and states:

The reader [...] comes to know his or her own love by way of a very complex activity, one that involves empathetic involvement with Marcel's suffering, sympathetic re- sponses to his suffering, and the concomi- tant 'mining' of his or her own life expe- rience for analogous loves. In the process of suffering, the reader is brought into contact with the reality of his or her own condition. (280)

Mann's Doktor Faustus, like Proust's novel, communicates knowledge through suffering, but does not lend itself to being read as Nussbaum reads Proust. Nuss- baum assumes an intimacy between text and reader; she does not examine novels that challenge this relationship through literary devices such as an unreliable nar- rator.

Readers of Mann's Doktor Faustus learn of Adrian's suffering through Serenus, an unreliable narrator, and we grasp Serenus's own emotional suffering indirectly. Our emotional responses cast doubt on Serenus's judgments and lead to critical engagement with the narrative that in turn facilitates stronger connections with the novel's char- acters. Serenus's intention in setting Adri- an's suffering in a Faustian context is to com- pel us to a condemnation of Adrian. In this light, Adrian's suffering seems deserved-a way of paying his dues for entering into a pact with the devil. But a reader who is moved to tears on Adrian's collapse willhave difficulties accepting his damnation or his demonic character. While Adrian may not be an entirely sympathetic character, readers feel that he does not deserve eternal damna- tion. To condemn him would perpetuate the cruelty and suffering he already endured.

If we are to pursue more than mere knowledge of ourselves and of moral truths, and to seek also to act in a world based on moral principles, some works of literature because they present us fictional contexts that are related in varying degrees to the way we respond in our social, cultural and politi- cal present-may provide more immediate connections to reality. That is to say, litera- ture may allow us to respond in all our com- plexity as human individuals in a way that philosophy does not. Nussbaum, in contrast, reasserts the higher value of philosophy. She argues that we still need philosophy in order to articulate literature's moral lessons. "[.. . It] was philosophy and not a surge of emo- tion that articulated for us the idea that knowledge might be something other than intellectual grasping-might be an emo- tional response, or even a complex form of life" (283). While philosophy may articulate literature's moral lessons, literature facili- tates the transition to ethical action. Liter- arytexts may be especially better suited than theory to conveying those situations that call for ethical response, such as instances of suf- fering or pain. Suffering can be communi- cated to the recipient aesthetically in works that encourage her to move from an aes- thetic to an ethical response in order to bring suffering to an end. The reader does not merely acquire love's knowledge, she is com- pelled to act on it.

While Nussbaum subordinates literature tophilosophy, Adorno attributes "Wahrheit" to the aesthetic. For Adorno, the truth of suf- fering may be grasped in aesthetic experi- ence but is obscured by conceptual language.

Leiden, auf den Begriff gebracht, bleibt stumm und konsequenzlos: das laDt in Deutschland nach Hitler sich beobach- ten. Dem Hegelschen Satz, den Brecht als Devise sich erkor: die Wahrheit sei kon- kret, geniigt vielleicht im Zeitalter des un- begreifbaren Grauens nur noch Kunst. Das Hegelsche Motiv von der Kunst als BewuDtsein von Noten hat iiber alles von ihm Absehbare hinaus sich bestatigt. (AS

thetischc Theorie 35)

For Adorno, to bring suffering into a philo- sophical system, even into language, si- lences suffering and strips it of its truth.3 Pain becomes beautiful Schein, thereby pointing negatively to the truth of pain and lack of freedom, just as the blackbird's beautiful song after the rain only emerges when it is placed under nature's spell (105). Yet modernist music, particularly the work of Anton Weber, retains the power to emerge through this Schein as truth, as subjective expression in pure tone (121). We find these views reflected in the modernist compositions of Adrian. But unlike Adorno, Mann does not trust mod- ernist music to carry the truth of suffering that underlies this expression; he relies on the narrative to carry the music's truth in descriptive language. Yet both Mann and Adorno see in autonomous aesthetic ex- pression the promise for setting suffering free and moving beyond it. Not only the ex- pression itself, but also responses to it carry the hope that suffering may end. As Adorno suggests in "Erziehung nach Auschwitz" if there remains any hope at all (after Auschwitz), love is the one re- sponse capable of offering it. Doktor Fau- stus, saturated as it is with suffering, speaks to Adorno's concerns because the novel mobilizes the reader's (ethical) re- sponse to suffering through music in such a manner as to link both suffering and re- sponse to a political context.

Adorno and Mann both look for hope in the human capacity to love by suggesting that love might put an end to the barbarism that was the Holocaust and hence also to suffering. Adorno observes

Jeder Mensch heute, ohne jede Ausnah- me, fiihlt sich zuwenig geliebt, weil jeder zuwenig lieben kann. Unfahigkeit zur Identifikation war fraglos die wichtigste psychologische Bedingung dafiir, dal3 so etwas wie Auschwitz sich inmitten von ei- nigermafien gesitteten und harmlosen Menschen hat abspielen konnen. (98)

Adorno renders identification, typically associated with the formation of the mass, a principle of subjective communion. Iden- tification in this context resembles Mit- gefiihl and empathy, which redeem suffer- ing individuals precisely by recognizing shared suffering. Identification, not as mass identity but as the ability to see one- self in the situation of the other, implies solidarity with humanity. Such solidarity provides a measure of hope in the postwar political situation.

Yet only an autonomous love would be ca- pable of securing solidarity with humanity and rescuing individuals from the barbarism of society. Adorno indicates that familial, sexual, Christian, and utopian love will not end the horror. These forms of love extend from compulsion or duty or fail to adequately confront the source of the horror. Con- versely, autonomous love, free of compul- sion, negates the very principle of nation- hood and mass, for it sees the particular, 13s it from mass, yet at the same time does not deny aspects of the individual extending from the group or community. Nevertheless, Adorno expresses some reservations in this regard. The type of love that is needed pres-

Doktor Faustus

ents readers with an insurmountable chal- lenge, "Denn die Menschen, die man lieben soll, sind ja selber so, dalj sie nicht lieben konnen, und damm ihrerseits keineswegs so liebenswert"(98).

To return to Nussbaum, we see that liter- ature may move readers toward such love. Yet contrary to Nussbaum's ultimate subor- dination of literature to philosophy for the sake of articulating the truths experienced while reading literature, we see that litera- ture itself may increase our ability topractice love. In a fictional context, we may empa- thize with a character who otherwise elicits hatred, disdain, or contempt. Through the aesthetic experience, the recipient may ac- quire the ethical practice or predisposition that would be equal to the task of ending bar- barism because there is less at stake in the fictional situation than in the real world. The aesthetic experience mobilizes an emotional response and encourages humanistic reflec- tion on the sources of suffering and evil. This should not be mistaken for a desire to excul- pate evil or barbarism, or to imply that evil may be normalized through understanding. It is merely to suggest, as Adorno indicates, that such an attempt at Mitgefihl remains necessary in order for barbarism to end. In the context of Mann's Doktor Faustus, we might argue that what Serenus needs is our love because it is out of loneliness and love- lessness that he turns to the devil. Should we respond to the end of Mann's Doktor Faustus with the slightest sense of empathy for Se- renus, we begin to feel what it is to practice the love that is both ethically and politically necessary but cannot be demanded. We face the challenge of extending this love to those who perpetuate suffering and barbarism.

Putting an end to suffering in the context of Doktor Faustus requires that we doubt Serenus's judgments, yet remain sensitive to his suffering. We know that Serenus is unre- liable from the opening passages of the novel. He begins by conceding that he is perhaps not suited to write the biography of Adrian and thus breaks the very rules of the genre by placing himself in the foreground. His doubts that the biography will ever see the light of day heighten the reader's suspicions that Serenus does not feel bound to the con- ventions of biography as nonfiction. His emo- tions color his descriptions, and he writes at length on events he never witnessed and which are undocumented. Readers, there- fore, proceed from the recognition of Sere- nus's predisposition to provide a distorted account, a flawed narrative.

But it's not just that Serenus is simply unreliable, he in fact sets out to demonize his friend Adrian. And yet, as one of Mann's typ- ically ambiguous characters, Serenus is nei- ther completely sinister, nor entirelyunsyrn- pathetic. Most likely inadvertently, Serenus reveals two reasons why he would demonize his fnend and so why readers should doubt his account. Serenus is motivated by unre- quited love. At the start of the biography Serenus admits,

ich habe ihn [Adrian] geliebt -mit Entsetzen und Zartlichkeit, mit Erbarmen und hingebender Bewunderung-und wenig dabei gefragt, ob er im mindesten mir das Gefiihl zuriickgabe. (10)

The next paragraph begins, "Das hat er nicht getan, o nein." His writing seems to be motivated by this "o nein." Rather than a biography written by a friend, as the sub- title tells us, the text is Serenus's demoni- zation of the man who did not return his love.

What is more, the particular context of Nazi Germany in the final years of the war lends political expediency to Serenus's per- sonal motives. By projecting the devil onto Adrian, he attempts to cast off his own gdt, and so he consciously works with a parallel between Adrian's music and the political state of Germany. Mann presents Serenus as a member of the Bildungsbiirgertum trying to avoid being implicated in fascism by blam- ing the fringe artist. Fascism conveniently becomes the responsibility of the modern artist who allegedly turned to demonic, irra- tional powers, and thus contributed to the formation of a cultural realm amenable to the barbarism and irrationality of National Socialism. At the very least, Adrian's works reflect the barbarism of the era. By blaming the artist, the 'good German' Serenus avoids potential blame being placed on him for his lack of resistance and for his own tendency to believe in irrational myths.

Mann's political essays and speeches written during and immediately following WW I1 suggest an alternative to the demonic context. In speeches broadcast to Germany and pen before British and American audi- ences, Mann repeatedly expresses his con- cern with love, not damnation. His speech to an American audience at the Library of Con- gress in 1943 is but one of many examples linking love and German politics:

In seiner [Deutschlandsl Weltscheu war immer soviel Weltverlangen, auf dem Grunde der Einsamkeit, die es bose mach- te, ist, wer wul3te es nicht! der Wunsch, zu lieben, der Wunsch, geliebt zu sein. Zu- letzt ist das deutsche Ungluck nur das Pa- radigma der Tragik des Menschenseins uberhaupt. Der Gnade, deren Deutsch- land so dringend bedarf, bedurfen wir alle. (281)

For Mann, redemption for the "fehlgegan- gene gute" Germany must follow the path of love and reconciliation (279). This call to love is found not only in the speeches, it is one of the central themes in Doktor Fau- stus: the need to respond to political catas- trophes with more effective strategies than condemnation, ostracism, or retribu- tion. It is important to emphasize that Mann's statements were not conceived as apologetics on Germany's behalf. Rather, as a way of encouraging resistance (even if only in the limited realm of a cultural polit- ical struggle over what is "German"), he reminds Germans that their true national character is opposed to Nazism. He deliv- ers the call to love in an attempt to bring antisemitism, hatred, and violence to an end and to prevent further Holocausts and wars.

Serenus is both ndive and cunning. Unre- quited love tricks him into seeing the devil in Adrian, and yet he strategically structures the biography as Adrian's decline from a community located in the heart of Reforma- tion Germany to the depths of hellish barba- rism in the salon culture of Munich. He sug- gests that the German nation has taken the same path, i.e., from Luther to Hitler. But Serenus clumsily stumbles into the ruptures within his narrative. By paying close atten- tion to these moments and by exploring the extratextual elements of the "biography," I piece together the story of Adrian and his masterpiece, Dr Fausti Weheklag.

The reader knows that in the 1910s, while in Palestrina with hs librettinist Rii- diger Schildknapp, Adrian writes what ini- tially appears to be a dialogue with the devil, the key piece of evidence that allows Serenus to establish Adrian as a Faustian figure. De- spite his supposed philological sophistica- tion, Serenus reads this dialogue literally. He strategically places this text at the center of his biography and suggests throughout the preceding chapters that Adrian is demonic. But the text turns out to be a passage for the Faust cantata, Dr Fausti Weheklag, that Adrian drafted while working on his opera Love's Labour's Lost, not an actual dialogue between Adrian and some demonic other.

Several clues in the text suggest that Adrian in fact writes a libretto or an outline of a future work. First of all, it is no coinci- dence that Adrian is writing while staying in the Italian city Palestrina. The composer of that name is credited with having saved polyphonic music from the church's attempt to ban it during the Counter-Reformation. The church felt that the complexity of such music obscured the religious text. In his 1562163 mass dedicated to Pope Marcellus 11, Palestrina achieved textual clarity and intel- ligibility in a polyphonic work, thereby free- ing polyphonic music from the threatened ban. Adrian will go further than Palestrina, for he intends to bring text and music to- gether to the point at whch music is liber- ated as language ("Musik als Sprache be- freit"). At this early stage, language commu- nicates music, for writing is composing.

Adrian prefaces his text with the comment that Rudiger "[dlenkt, ich komponiere, und wenn er siih, dal3 ich Worte schreib, wiird er denken, dal3 auch Beethoven das wohl tat" (300). Rudiger would think that Beethoven also wrote narratively on scored paper be- cause what Adrian is writing will become music.

A number of circumstances lead to the conclusion that this text is a plan for the cantata. Ever since he was a teenager, Adrian has associated the problem of a breakthrough in musical expression with Beetho- ven. His fist composition instructor, Wen- dell Kretzschmar, gave a lecture in which he discussed Beethoven's piano sonata in C minor, Opus 111,the piano sonata in only two movements. Kretzschmar, ina paraphrase of Adorno's essay on the piece, argues that Bee- thoven could not write a third movement because he had exhausted subjective musical expression and thereby brought the sonata form to an end.

Es sei geschehen, dal3 die Sonate im zwei- ten Satz, diesem enormen, sich zu Ende gefuhrt habe, zu Ende auf Nimmerwie- derkehr. Und wenn er [Kretzschmar] sage: "Die Sonate", so meine er nicht die- se nur, in c-Moll, sondern er meine die So- nate uberhaupt, als Gattung, als uberlie- ferte Kunstform: sie selber sei hier zu Ende, ans Ende gefiihrt, sie habe ihr Schicksal erfullt, ihr Ziel erreicht, uber das hinaus es nicht gehe, sie hebe und lose sich auf, sie nehme Abschied[. ..I. (74)

Here Adrian sees his challenge. He will move dialectically beyond Beethoven and achieve subjective expression in music.

Serenus would have us believe that Adri- an possesses a Faustian drive to achieve the DurcMruch. But this drive has less to do with Faust than with Marx. With Adorno's observations on this Beethoven sonata, with access to Adorno's manuscript for Philoso- phie der neuen Musih, and with the help of Adorno himself, Mann incorporates a more or less Marxian dialectic and perspective into his fictional material, albeit without Ador- nian antinomies.4 Kretzschmar follows a Marxist approach to music theory and com- position, which influences his pupil. At this point, I am less concerned with Mann's vari- ations on Adorno's theory than with Adri- an's position as a revolutionary rather than Faustian composer.

Adrian's compositions enact the dialectic between art and non-art that Kretzschmar discusses in his lecture on Beethoven's Opus 111.Kretzschmar calls out while playing the sonata, "der Schein-der Kunst wird abge- worfen-zuletzt-wirft irnmer die Kunst- den Schein der Kunst ab" (72). Kunst has reached the point at which it ceases to be Kunst, allowing the recipient to see that what was art was only Schein. Kretzschmar indicates that when art throws off the ap- pearance of art and becomes non-art, non- art potentially moves dialectically to art, to subjective expression (see also Bahr). Kretzschmar believes that Adrian is the sub- ject-object who can canythis revolution for- ward. He sees the revolutionary, not the devil, in his pupil. In response to Adrian's let- ter detailing why he is not suited to be a com- poser, Kretzschmar writes,

Die Kunst schreitet fort [...I und sie tut es vermittelst der Personlichkeit, die das Produkt und Werkzeugder Zeit ist, und in der objektive und subjektive Motive sich bis zur Ununterscheidbarkeit verbinden, die einen die Gestalt der anderen anneh- men. Das vitale Bediirfnis der Kunst nach revolutionarem Fortschritt und nach dem Zustandekommen des Neuen ist angewie- sen auf das Vehikel starksten subjektiven Gefuhls fur die Abgestandenheit, das Nichts-mehr-zu-sagen-Haben, das Un- moglich-geworden-Sein der noch gang und gaben Mittel [...I. (182)

The avant garde becomes the vanguard that solves the problem of revolutionary con- sciousness through the aesthetic.

If we listen to Adrian's compositions within this framework, the aspects of Adri- an's music labeled barbaric by Serenus and others mark instead a Marxian revolution- arymoment. Accorhngto Serenus, Adrian's Apocalipsis cum figuris suffered the "Vor- wurf des Barbarismus" (499). Mann's de- scription of this piece resembles the music of Stravinsky. Like Stravinsky, Adrian joins the past-visions of mystics and Reformation era culture-with the present, suggesting a temporal collapse and an absence of real progress. Musical devices associated with Stravinsky and present in Adrian's work sound violent, such as the glissando, con- trasting rhythms, and destabilizing associa- tions of dissonance and harmony. But for the humanist Serenus, Adrian's most signfi- cant sin is the "Auflosung" of the border be- tween subject and object, between "Mensch" and "Ding" (499). Such "barbarism" con- vinces Serenus that his friend cooperates with the devil. But Adrian has not turned to the ded; he is merely adhering to the lessons of his composition instructor.

Apocalipsis cumfiguris is not a piece with demonic intentions, but rather the success- ful attempt at reaching a revolutionary mo- ment. Adrian has brought music to the point of dialectical Umschlag in a work that allows him and the listener to move beyond barba- ri~m.~

Rather than celebrating barbarism, the work brings barbarism to an end by per- fecting it. In this manner, "Kunst wird Kritik as Adrian expresses and exposes the truth of human existence. Adrian's work unifies past and present, the Reformation era and his present era of the Weimar Repub- lic, to indicate the persistence of the need for emancipation unachieved since the Refor- mation. We can see that Adrian intends to bring the movement started by Luther to actual liberation, its final end. But Serenus, a Catholic, resists this fight against the church. He perpetuates the immediate post- Reformation cultural context in which a naive populace first saw the devil in the work of Dr. Georg Faust.

Returning to that evening on which Adrian wrote his dialogue, we discover a set of circumstances preceding Adrian's prose composition that may have inspired his idea for the Faust cantata. As Adrian writes in a semi-autobiographical mode, we can con- clude that he was reading the passage on Mo- zart's Don Juan in Kierkegaard's Eitherlor. Don Giouanni, like amusical Faust, connects music, sex, and damnation. Adrian's strug- gle with his current compositional project likely reminds him of his drive to transcend mere parody and regain music's expressivity, Ths combination of factors possibly leads hto consider a Faust composition in which Faust is a composer who attempts to solve Adrian's own compositional problem by en- tering into a pact with the devil, signed in erotic experience. Adrian's plan for the can- tata thus mirrors Mann's own compositional method: The work of art is a montage of events taken fiom his own life and from other literary and musical sources. In the process, Adrian, likeMann, alters events and material to suit his purposes.6 Unlike Mann's biographers, who are able to sepa- rate biographical fact from fiction, Serenus fallaciously extrapolates fiom the art the as- sumption that Adrian had truly entered into a demonic pact.7

In the dialogue, Adrian addresses the principle elements he will have to consider in composing the Faust cantata. For a discus- sion of each aspect, Adrian alters the ded's appearance. In his outline of the libretto's plot, the devil resembles the dubious man who takes Adrian on a tour of Leipzig. In the music theoretical passage, the devil assumes the form of an "Intelligenzler" whose fea- tures bear more resemblance to Adorno's than to Kretzschmar's. For the theological component, Adrian conjures up his theology professor Schleppfd who had an interest in demonology. The Faust in Adrian's cantata is a composer who will enter into a pact with the devil to solve the problem of Beethoven's Opus 111.Hewill sign the pact when hejour- neys to Prefiburg to find Esmeralda and in- fect himself with syphhs.

Thirteen years after Adrian's collapse Serenususes this text to demonize the artist, obscure reality, and attribute an evil power to the development of German culture that parallels the nation's descent into the barba- rism of the Third Reich. But if we reject Serenus's demonization of Adrian, we are left to reconstruct his biography from the elements of the textthat canbe established as accurate and true within the fictional con- text--dialogues, letters, and reports of events, i.e., those moments least implicated in the narrator's judgment. What we find is the story of Adrian's loves and the love that was necessary for him to compose.

The question of love in Doktor Faustus continues to attract scholarly interest, for the terms of the devil's pact forbid the Faust composer from loving or being loved: "Liebe ist dir verboten, insofern sie w-t. -Dein Leben soll kdt sein-darum darfst du kei- nen Menschen lieben" (334).8Serenus would like us to believe that after sealing the pact by having sex with Esmeralda, Adrian violated its terms by loving Rudi Schwerdtfeger and Nepomuk Schneidewein, thereby causing their deaths. Similarly, Serenus mystifies Adrian's failed marriage proposal to Marie Godeau. But since Adrian is in fact capable of loving others, including Jeannette Scheurl, without causing them harm, there clearly is a problem with Serenus's narrative.

I suggest that there is no ban on love other than that presented by Adrian's illness, congenital ~yphilis.~

A passage in Adri- an's Faust-dialogue gives us reason to believe that Adrian's father, Jonathan Leverkiihn, passed syphilis on to his son. His father, not Esmeralda, was the source of his disease. The devil figure states, "[olh, deinvater ist in meinem Made gar nicht so fehl am Ort. Er hatt es hinter den Ohren, mochte immer gern die elementa spekulieren. Das Haupt- wee, den Ansatzpunkt fiir die Messerschrnerzen der kleinen Seejungfrau, hast du doch auch von ihrn . . ." (316).The devil con- tinues, speahng of the father and son:

Ihr habt da den Lubalsack mit der pulsie- renden Liquorsaule darin, der reicht ins Zerebrale, zu den Hirnhauten, in deren Gewebe die schleichende venerische Me- ningitis am leisen, verschwiegenen Werke ist. (316)

Jonathan's headaches are caused by vene- real meningitis, resulting from syphilis which he passed on to his son and most likely to his daughter.

Jonathan's scientific experiments, at- tempts to make the invisible visible, give us Wher reason to suspect that he has syphi- lis. Consider his fascination with butterflies: the Heteara esmeralda, the leaf butterfly, and the foul tasting butterfly deceive the ob- server and potential predator with their ap- pearances. We canconclude that this inter- est extends from an earlier time. When Jona- than once encountered a prostitute, he did not know of nature's imperfections beneath her wings, that the one of "auffallende Schonheit" was "ungeniefibar"(22).Later in life, Adrian's eyes are opened to his fa- ther's suffering when he encounters his own butterfly, an esmeralda, a fragile but not poi- sonous insect.

Adrian first meets Esmeralda when he arrives in Leipzig to study composition with Kretzschrnar. As is well known, Mann bor- rows the event from the biography of Nietz- sche. Like Nietzsche, Adnan flees to the pi- ano to seek refuge from the women. In his letter to Serenus, Adrian describes this first encounter with Esmeralda:

Neben mich stellt sich eine Braunliche, in spanischem Jackchen, mit grol3em Mund, Stumpfnase und Mandelaugen, Esmeral- da, die streichelt mir mit dem Arm die Wange. (192)

Adrian writes "Esmeralda" because, un- like the "butterfly" his father encountered, she is a source of hope, not infection. Mutual infection would allow Adrian to experience sexual love.

Esmeralda touches Adrian immediately following the chord progression he plays from Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischiitz -"Modulation von H- nach C-Dur, aufhel- lender Halbton-Abstand wie im Gebet des Eremiten im Freischiitz-Finale, bei dem Eintritt von Pauke, Trompeten und Oboen auf dem Artsextakkord von C" (191).Hans Rudolf Vaget argues that the coincidence of Esmeralda's touch and these optimistic, re- demptive chords provides evidence of Adorno's influence on the composition of the novel. Vaget places Mann's Doktor Fau- stus in the tradition of Goethe and argues that the chords represent grace that comes with the fall, consistent with the novel's the- matic identity of the non-identical(183-84). Accordng to Vaget, Esmeralda represents both sin and redemption in that, through the sin of deliberate infection, Adrian achieves greatness in artistic composition and there- by secures his own redemption. But in play- ing this modulation, Adrian places himself beyond the Faustian context, for he enters the opera at the point of salvation. This sal- vation is realized through demystification, through a critique of the society that im- pedes love.

In the opera, a hermit emerges from the woods to redeem Max, a villager who sought demonic powers in order to win the shooting competition that will determine whether or not he is able to marry his fiancee Agatha. The hermit intervenes not only to gain par- don for Max, asking the villagers to under- stand that Max was motivated by love, but also to ban the competition. The hermit re- moves the impedunents to love and frees in- dwiduals from the temptation to turn to the devil. He extends pardon from a human un- derstanding of Max's motives and from a cri- tique of traditional society that hinders love. In playing these chords, Adrian identifies with the hermit who critiques society to emancipate it from suffering and the impedi- ments to love. Yet, like Max, he will wait one year before consummating hs relationship with Esmeralda. In contrast, Serenus cannot overcome the obstacles barring him from a loving relationshp with Adnan and so he turns to the demon. It is Serenus, not Adrian, who perpetuates the Romantic tradition of turning to the devil.

Mann sets Adrian against this demonic tradition. His story more closely resembles that of Oswald in Ibsen's Ghosts. Like Adri- an, Ibsen's Oswald inherits syphdis from his father. But there is a significant difference between this naturalist work and Mann's postwar novel. In the play disease is the out- ward manifestation of "ghosts" who repre- sent what is inherited from fathers and mothers and the dehnct theories and beliefs within society. Disease reveals that the Alving famdy and society are in decline, that they are not as respectable or pious as they appear.As in other naturalist works, disease sigmfies an inner truth as ifit were scientific evidence of unseen decay. Disease reveals these ghosts, the truth about society, but the truth does not expel the ghosts. In contrast, Mann eliminates the ghosts, leaving us only with the disease, but a disease which stands negatively for the urgency of love.lO In Dok- tor Faustus, disease is dsease and suffering is suffering, and both may come to an end through love that emanates from empathy and compassion.

Instead of disease or demonic powers, Adrian seeks love. As we learn from Adrian's letter to Kretzschrnar, he realizes that his in- novative works will not be conceiveduntil he experiences love. But instead of searching for the end to isolation in a Dionysian loss of self in music and the erotic, Adrian seeks the power of Apollo, for Apollo, the form-giving god of music, is also the healer of plagues. From Esmeralda, Adrian receives not just sexual, but emotional love, and from Esmer- alda as Frau von Tolna, he receives the ring which symbolizes the & of Apollo, namely the powers of music and healing.

The standard interpretation of the key piece of evidence that establishes the iden- tity of Esmeralda and Frau von Tolna, the emerald ring, perpetuates the interpretation of Esmeralda as the one who infects Adrian. In his study of Frau von Tolna, Victor 0s- wald establishes the identity of the two women on the basis of their common Hun- garian origins, the etymological connections between Esmeralda and emerald, the syrn- bolism of the ring, and other factors. The ring bears an inscription to Apollo and an en- graving of a dragon, worm-like figure with a forked tongue. Because the worm and Apollo are associated with disease, Oswald argues that the gift represents Esmeralda's & of syphhs, and thus the ring suggests the iden-

Doktor Faustus

tity of the women. However, this is to misap- prehend the symbolism of the ring.

Rather than a giR of &ease, the ring symbolizes a union between Adrian and Esmeralda made possible by the fad that they share the disease. Through mutual love, both of them are healed-Esmeralda's physical recovery leads to her marriage, and Adri- an's Durchbruch in composition signals a form of healing as well. The inscription on the ring prophesies the power Adrian's mu- sicwillpossess: "Welch ein Beben durchfuhr den Lorbeerbusch des Apollon! / Beben das ganze Gebilk! Unheilige, fliehet! Entwei- chet!" (521). These opening lines toCallimachus' hymn to Apollo introduce a poem of ecstatic joy, celebrating the arrival of the god of music. The tree shook as Apollo's mother conceived him.The unholy should flee be- cause this music is not for them; the music and celebration are for those who love the god. Serenus erroneously interprets these lines to be threatening rather than celebra- tory.11 Conversely, the ring indicates that the love between Adrian and Esmeralda gives birth to Adrian's god-like powers of music, which will not be heard by the "Unheiligen," for in the end they willabandonhimwithout listening to his healing words and music.

Esmeralda as Frau von Tolna assumes the role of Callirnachus announcing the god's approach as she brings Adrian's music to the public and to the attention of music critics. She need not be an enigmatic figure in Sere- nus's biography ofAdrian, but Serenus hides her from our view because her story would challengehis narrative. Without having earlier mentioned a woman with whom Adrian had been in contact, on the arrival of Dr. Edelmann, a music publisher from Vienna, Serenus rather suddenly reveals

[dl& [Adrian] seit Jahr und Tag in briefli- chem Austausch mit [Frau von Tolnal stand, einer Korrespondenz, in welcher sie sich als die klugste und genaueste Kennerin und Bekennerin seines Werkes, dazu als sorgende Freundin und Ratgebe- rin, als unbedingte Dienerin seiner Exis- tenz erwies, und worin er fur sein Teil an die Grenze der Mitteilsamkeit und des Vertrauens ging, deren die Einsamkeit fa- hig ist, --das ist eine andere Sache. (518)

As she knows his music so well, her letters would provide an excellent source for the reader to discover more about Adrian. They should be at the center of the biogra- phy. Instead, Serenus only mentions their existence as an insignificant aside. We can conclude that the revelation of her iden- tity and the content of these letters may expose a warm and loving relationship that went unpunished by Serenus's devil, thereby throwing his demonic narrative into doubt.

It is the murder of Rudi that presents Serenus the opportunity to demonize the re- lationship between the violinist and Adrian. After a loveless affair with Ines, a member of their circle, Ru&, in need of love and healing, approaches Adrian to ask for a violin con- certo:

Ich brauche Sie, Adrian, zu meiner He- bung, meiner Vervollkommnung, meiner Besserung, auch zu meiner Reinigung, gewissermaljen, von den anderen Ge- schichten. Auf mein Wort, so ist es, es ist mir niemals ernster mit einer Sache, mit einem Bediirfnis gewesen. Und das Kon- zert, das ich mir von Ihnen wiinsche, ist nur der zusammen-gedrangteste, ich mijchte sagen: der symbolische Ausdruck fiir dies Bedurfnis. (466-67)

Rudi needs love and the healing power of subjective expression to release himself from suffering and from a relationship which consumed him. Serenus describes this passage as Rudi7s "Verfiihrung" of Adrian, and he jealously looks on as Rudi appears on stage hand in hand with Adri- an. Serenus does not allow this love for an- other man to go unpunished. He trans- forms Ines, similarly suffering from a lack of mutual love, into an agent of the devil when she murders her former lover.

Just as Adrian does not cause Rudi's death, neither does his love for his nephew Echo bring on the little boy's fatal illness.

Both Echo and his mother Ursula Schneide- wein, Adrian's sister, exhibit symptoms of secondary syphilis (607, 624). Echo subse- quently experiences symptoms resembling Adrian's: the sensitivity to light and head- aches symptomatic of the tertiary stage of syphilis.The doctor diagnoses Echo with "Ce- rebrospinal-Meningitis, die Hirnhautentziin- dung" (6261, but Echo is in the final stages of syphilis, as Adrian knows. Serenus, however, brutally describes the child's painful death as evidence of Adrian's demonic pact and thus places gudt for Echo's death on Adrian.

When Serenus encounters Adrian imme- diately after Echo's death, he again tries to use the devil to silence the voice of suffering. In intense grief, Adrian cries out against the injustice of the boy's death. Serenus denies the reality of human pain by refusing to ac- cept Adrian's grief as grief. Instead, he inter- prets Adrian's grief as an admission of gudt and evidence of his pad with the devil. In the context of Serenus's demonic narrative, the following passage suggests that Adrian cries out to the devil who is taking Echo as pay- ment for having violated the pact.

"Nimm ihn, Scheusal!" rief er mit einer Stimme, die mir ins Mark schnitt. "Nimm ihn, Hundsfott, aber beeil dich nach Kraf- ten, wenn du denn, Schubiack, auch dies nicht dulden wolltest! Ich hatte gedacht", wandte er sich plotzlich leise-vertraulich an mich, schritt vor und sah mich mit ei- nem verlorenen Blicke an, den ich nie ver- gessen werde, "dd er dies zulassen wer- de, dies vielleicht doch, aber nein, woher soll der Gnade nehmen, der Gnadenferne, und gerade dies wohl mufit' er in viehi- scher Wut zertreten. Nimm ihn, Aus- wurfl" (629)

Instead of expressing gudt, his cries re- flect the intensity of his pain on seeing Echo suffer and on losing yet another loved one and they express his anger that the disease was passed on to the second generation after his father. Adrian taunts Serenus to turn to his Catholic faith and dispel the evil. "Spar dir's, spar dir's und mach dein Kreuz! Da oben geht's zu. Mach's nicht fiir dich nur, sondern gleich auch fir mich und meine Schuld!" (630). His bitter words condemn Serenus's humanism and his Catholicism. Neither can offer comfort and both are pow- erless to heal. Adrian turns instead to music which will end suffering by encouraging compassion.

Subsequent to Echo's death, Adrian has the form, purpose, and theologd context that will enablehim to finish his work on the Faust cantata.

Das Gute und Edle [...I was man das Menschliche nennt, obwohl es gut ist und edel. Um was die Menschen gekampft, wofur sie Zwingburgen gesturmt, und was die Erfullten jubelnd verkundigt ha- ben, das soll nicht sein. Es wird zuruckge- nommen. Ich will es zurucknehmen. [...I Die Neunte Symphonie. (631)

In pain after the deaths of Rudi and Echo and in the final stages of his own illness, Adrian completes his Dr. Fausti Weheklag. Instead of an ode to joy, Adrian composes an ode an das Leiden, for what is good and noble, the truth of the human condition is not this expression ofjoy and human com- munity. Rather, it is the extremely subjec- tive and private pain of the suffering indi- vidual. Adrian achieves the Durchbruch in composition with music that realizes this condition. In contrast, Serenus acts con- trary to the tenets of his humanism and Catholicism as he conjures up the devil in writing his biography.

In the final movement of the Ninth Sym- phony, Beethoven brings vocal and instru- mental music together. Dr: Fausti Weheklag reverses the Ninth Symphony by beginning with the full orchestration, subsequently separating music and word, and finally re- ducing the orchestration until only a cello re- mains playing a suspended high G. When Adrian performs the piece, he achieves a sim- ilar, yet significantly merent effect by sepa- rating voice and instrument. Adrian first gives his poetic monologue and then pro- ceeds to the musical portion of the perfor- mance. Typically, ths monologue is viewed as the ravings of man, mad from syphilis and admitting his cooperation with the devil. But these lines tell the story of Adrian's cantata, the outline for which he wrote while in Palestrina.12

With the completion of the literary por- tion of his performance, Adrian turns to the piano. His suffering becomes palpable and his tears express the truth of his art.Serenus describes the scene:

Wir sahen Tranen seine Wangen hinun- terrinnen und auf die Tasten fallen, die er, na13 wie sie waren, in stark dissonantem Akkorde anschlug. Dabei offnete er den Mund, wie um zu singen, aber nur ein Klagelaut, der mir fur immer im Ohre hangengeblieben ist, brach zwischen sei- nen Lippen hervor; er breitete, uber das Instrument gebeugt, die Arme aus, als wollte er es damit umfangen, und fie1 plotzlich, wie gestol3en, seitlich vom Ses- sel hinab zu Boden. (663)

In the Klagelaut Adrian achieves the breakthrough in musical expression, not with the help of the devil, but through love. Word and music are joined in subjective ex- pression, the expression of suffering in- separable from love. In expression of and through this suffering and love, Adrian achieves his end.

As long as Doktor Faustus is read through the lens of a political-theological metaphor, the novel leaves the reader little hope. The only hope for Germany tainted by its pact with the devil is with a radically new begin- ning after the war, with a Stunde Nu11 .I3But if we consider Adrian's final composition in light of Mann's collaboration with Adorno, Mann's humanist and political optimism emer- ges more clearly In composinghis description of Adrian's finalwork, Mann often consulted Adorno, and Adorno commented on drafts. Mann alsohad a manuscript of Adorno's Philosophie der neuen Musik. Thus, it is not surprising that certain passages closely re- semble Adorno's text and his thought. How- ever, Mann differs from Adorno with regard to the position or role of art in society.

A central feature of Adrian's final work is the incorporation of an echo in the Dr Fausti Weheklagscore. In a paraphrase of Adorno, Mann writes,

[dlas Echo, das Zuruckgeben des Men- schenlautes als Naturlaut, und seine Ent- hullung als Naturlaut, ist wesentliche Klage, das wehmutsvolle "Ach ja!" der Natur uber den Menschen und die versu- chende Kundgebung seiner Einsamkeit.

(641)

But Mann moves from the loneliness of the echo to community. The suspended high G of the cello seems to resonate for the reader, as does the Klagelaut. Mann en- courages the listener or reader to echo the suspended G, to return Adrian's Klagelaut.Those who listen to Mann's novel and respond in both emotional and critical en- gagement translate this note back to mu- sic. The musical representation of hope is lodged in an invitation to the reader, a po- tentially dialogic reception, embedded in the text. For a dialogic reception, the real- ization of an "echo," indicates sympathy, and community is thereby formed. It is telling that Adorno objected to this sus- pended G.14

Mann's hope for Germany and the world community after the war rests with those who listen to him, heeding his message of love and responding with compassionate love to human suffering. But the prevailing interpretation of Mann's Doktor Faustus sees in it a novel allegorizing the damnation of Germany with only a flicker of hope in the final passage of the novel with its "Hoffnung jenseits der Hoffnungslosigkeit" (648). I would like to propose that an alternative set of aesthetic and political implications arise from the novel.

The intertextual moments I have called attention to here point toward Mann's ef- forts to demystlfy art and rid it of myths. Mann critiques a mythic and symbolic way of looking at the world. He also sets himself against an earlier way of writing that incor- porates symbols and myths. Consider the difference between congenital syphilis in Ibsen's Ghosts and in Doktor Faustus. In the former, and more generally in naturalism, disease has greater symbolic significance as the manifestation of the decay of society. In Doktor Faustus, there is the possibility to see that disease is just disease and, by extension, that suffering is just suffering and that both ought to end.

To listen to Serenus's demonic narrative necessitates accepting the symbolism of dis- ease and the necessity of suffering. If we do so, the novel passes political judgment through its political theo1ogm.l metaphor. But in this context, the novel would suggest that modernism, and more specifically mod- ernist music, parallels barbaric develop- ments in German politics. Yet Mann certain- ly did not view the music in this manner, nor would he have had a reason to propagate such a conservative cultural judgment. In- stead, I would suggest, Mann's novel makes an important statement on modernism.15 The novel surpasses or overcomes its Ro- mantic and naturalist predecessors, as the comparison with Ghosts reveals. Comparing Adrian to Mann's hero in Der Zauberberg, Hans Castorp, we see that Adrian is not sub- ject to a Romantic fascination with death. There is a Lindenbaum on the grounds of the childhood home Adrian returns to after his collapse. But whereas Der Zauberberg's Hans Castorp is drawn to Schubert's Linden- baumlied and is fascinated by its associa- tions with death, in Doktor Faustus, the tree is comparatively benign. Adrian can sit un- der it with his mother without experiencing a fascination with death. In this novel, Mann overcomes the myths and symbols of the lit- erary past with a secular modernism. Mann, through Adrian, encourages rationalization of culture. As is typical of Mann, he returns to earlier moments in German cultural his- tory, within Romanticism in particular, in the attempt to right what he considers wrongs. The suffering, isolated individual and the human compulsion to turn to the mythical for explanations of the way thmgs are or for resolutions to problems provide ev- idence that a wrong has taken place. The music of Dr: Fausti Weheklag offers hope in that it ends with the melancholic note of the suffering individual, the lonely "Weheklag" that is voiced by the cello. With this Wehe- klag, Adrian, or more appropriately Mann, gives individuals and society another chance by encouraging them to respond to the truth expressed in this solitary voice, that is, to re- spond with love to human suffering and iso- lation.

If we focus on the Wehehlag-as a text notionally from Adrian-rather than on Se-renus's flawed discourse, we realize that Mann attempts to bring the Faust legend to an end by eliminating the need and motiva- tions for subsequent Fausts, as well as the tendency we may have to believe that there are Fausts or demonic figures. The Faust leg- end has become yet another mythical under- standing of cultural and historical develop- ments. Quite simply, the new music and art that achieve the breakthrough release indi- viduals in self-expression. This is the end of aesthetic and social achievement and the be- ginning of a new politics.

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Russell A. Berman, Karen Kenkel, and Arthur Strum for their comments on earlier versions of this paper. A special thank you to Anthony Everett.

Notes

See Goldman in particular.

Dorrit Cohn is similarly concerned with the "distinction of fiction," but unlike Nussbaum, her primary concern is to differentiate fictional texts from other narratives that reside on the border between fiction and nonfiction, such as historical texts.

See Zuidervaart for an extensive discussion of truth and art in Adorno' s Aesthetic Theory (178-213).

For a discussion of Adorno's role in writing the novel as well as the influence of his dialecti- cal thought on Mann, see Bahr, Dahlhaus, Dorr, and Vaget.

51t is worth noting that Adrian composes the work in 1919. Although this music sounds like Stravinsky, whose music Adorno deemed bar- baric, it is doubtful whether Adrian would em- brace or valorize barbarism. Readers of Mann all too often follow Adorno' s critique of Stra- vinsky in Philosophie der neuen Musik on read- ing Mann's novel. As Vaget has pointed out, Mann often did not follow Adorno's advice, and, moreover, Mann rather preferred Stra- vinsky' s company to Schoenberg's (175-77).

6At this early stage, Adrian' s Faust stands in a relationship to his creator that resembles the relationship between Gustav von Aschenbach and Mann in Tod in Venedig-the artist cre- ates a character capable of bringing his unfin- ished projects to an end.

7F0r a recent biography see Kurzke and for an interesting biographical interpretation of Mann' s fiction see Maar.

sSee Fetzer, Prutti, and Stock for their dis- cussion of love in Doktor Faustus.

9My discussion of syphilis does not correspond to the actual behavior of the disease. The disease functions as a fictional device that stands negatively for the need to love. Simi- larly, in Ibsen' s Ghosts,syphilis functions sym- bolically, not according to medical accuracy.

lOHere Mann departs from his earlier aes-

thetic in which disease symbolizes decay or de-

cline. In Doktor Faustus the Leverkiihn family

is quite simply sick.

llFetzer likewise argues that the inscription is

yet another warning to Adrian regarding the

deathly dangers of eros and music, the second

warning from Esmeralda (67). However this

conclusion removes the lines of the poem from

their context. The approach of Apollo is not a

threatening but a joyous occasion.

120ne of those in attendance correctly inter-

jects with "Man glaubt Poesie zu horen" (6571,

for Poesie it is.

13Consistent with this view, some scholars re-

fer to Doktor Faustus as an Endroman. See

Mayer.

14Adorno writes in response to the close ofDr.

Fausti Weheklag and the novel, "Gegeniiber

der Gesamtanlage von Doktor Fausti Wehklag

nicht nur sondern des ganzen Romans fand ich

die hochst belasteten Seiten zu positiv, zu

ungebrochen theologisch. Ihnen schien abzu- gehen, was in der entscheidenden Passage ge- fordert war, die Gewalt bestimmter Negation als der einzig erlaubten Chiffre des Anderen" ("Zu einem Portrat Thomas Manns" 341).

15In "Mann, Joyce, Wagner," Vaget compares Doktor Faustus to the work of James Joyce to argue that Mann's novel is not a modernist work; rather, it possesses an affinity with Mann's Wagnerian aesthetic. However, I agree with Berman's assessment of Doktor Faustus as a modernist work.

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. "Erziehung nach Auschwitz." Stichworte: Kritische Modelle 2. Frankf!urt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1969.

. "Zu einem Portrat Thomas Manns." Noten zur Literatur. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhr- kamp, 1974.

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Dahlhaus, Carl. "Fiktive ZwdRonmusik: Thomas Mann and Theodor W Adorno." Deutsche Akademie fir Spmche und Dichtung 1(1982): 3349.

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die Wirkung, 1. Teil. Ed. Rudolf Wolff. Bonn: Bouvier, 1983. 106-23.

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Oswald, Jr., Victor A. "Thomas Mann' s Doktor Faustus: The Enigma of Frau von Tolna." Germanic Review 23 (1948): 249-53. Prutti, Brigitte. "Women Characters in Doctor Faustus." Thomas Mann's Doctor Faustus: A Novel at the Margin of Modernism. Ed. Her- bert Lehnert and Peter C. Pfeiffer. Columbia, SC: Camden, 1991.99-112.

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Vaget, Hans Rudolf. "Amazing Grace: Thomas Mann, Adorno, and the Faust Myth." Our Faust? Roots and Ramifications of a Modern German Myth. Ed. Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand. Madison: U of Wisconsin E: 1987. 168-89. . "Mann, Joyce, Wagner: The Question of Modernism in Doctor Faustus." Thomas Mann 's Doctor Faustus: ANovel at the Margin ofModernism. Ed. Herbert Lehnert and Peter

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