"Das bissigste Stück der Saison": The Textual and Sexual Politics of Vampirism in Elfriede Jelinek's Krankheit oder Moderne Frauen

by Sigrid Berka
"Das bissigste Stück der Saison": The Textual and Sexual Politics of Vampirism in Elfriede Jelinek's Krankheit oder Moderne Frauen
Sigrid Berka
The German Quarterly
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Barnard College, Columbia University

"Das bissigste Stuck der Saison'v' The Textual and Sexual Politics ofVampirdsm in Elfriede Jelinek's

Krankheit oder Moderne Frauen

Den Wunsch, Leben zu erzeugen auf dem Theater, der fast aIle Schriftsteller angezogen hat, lehne ich abo Ich will genau das Entgegengesetzte: Unbelebtes erzeugen. Ich will dem Theater das Leben austreiben. Ich will kein Theater.2

Elfriede Jelinek's plays have been treated by journalists, critics, and Austrian directors alike as revenants always on a return trajectory: with the exception ofWas geschah, nachdemNoraihren Mann verlassen hatte (premiere: Graz 1979), they first had to be exiled to a stage in Germany and brought to life there before they came back to haunt Austrian stages. Krankheit oder ModerneFrauen (1987) had its premiere in Bonn, then Hamburg and Koblenz (all in 1987), before the Volkstheater Wien performed it in 1990. The difficulty in dealing with Jelinek's plays, and especially with this most unperformable one (which Annette Doll describes as "Montagefetzen" [7], a text full offantasy, but not a play for the theater), has to do with the disillusionment ofthe audience and the dissolution ofroles. The plot is rather simple. In the first act, two couples are introduced: the dentist and gynecologist Heidkliff, whose fiancee, Emily, is a nurse, writer, and vampire; and his friend, the tax consultant Hundekoffer, whose wife, Carmilla, gives birth to her sixth baby. In the course ofthe rather rude treatment she receives in Dr. Heidklifl's practice, she dies, only to be resurrected again through Emily's vampire bite. In the second act, the relationships have changed according to elective affinities: Emily and Carmilla are now a lesbianvampire couple, and theirformer partners try to hunt them down. The difficulty of this play lies in the fact that these protagonists, like all of Jelinek's dramatic figures, are put into a stream of language in which they are spoken, rather than speaking themselves. When Jelinek points out the unconscious dimensions oftheir speech, "Es spricht aus ihnen," ("lch will kein Theater" 31) she refers not only to the dreamlike quality ofthe discourse of her figures, with its disruptions, associations, ellipses, condensations, and displacements, but also to a certain structuringprinciple oftimelessnesswhich they share with the vampire's longevity. Corinna Caduff lists the characteristics that qualify Jelinek's so-called regressive style as a "mimesis ofchildrens' language":

Die Absenz von Zeitbewul3tsein, die die Jelinekschen Theaterfiguren kennzeichnet, ist charakteristisch fur diesen Zustand des nicht-mehr und noch-nicht, es gibt keine Differenz mehr zwischen Innenleben und symbolischer AuI3erung.-Die Figuren sind das, was sie aussprechen. Ihre Post-Ich-und Vor-Ich-Existenz konstituiert sich durch die Sprache und lost sich wahrend deren Abwesenheit auf. (Caduff255)

The absence of any consciousness of time points in two directions: the unconscious, which is timelessin itseffects,andtoliterary history, from which Jelinek's protagonists are pieced together.

The German Quarterly 68.4 (Fall 1995) 372

My thesis is that the vampire inKrankheit is constructed out of both of these realms: the unconscious and citationality. With regard to the first, I will showin what ways the vampire is created by the defense mechanismofprojection. Withregardtothe latter, I will examine the intertextual bodies on which Jelinek's text preys: from the Bible to Bachmann, from Goethe to Goebbels. The self-reflexive gestures ofherliterarytreatment ofthevampire motifsetsher play apart from many traditional vampire tales. What is equally novel about her adaptation ofthe themeis thetribute shepays to implicit political dimensions. Her vampires stand in for the position awarded woman by discourses ranging from that of the nineteenth-centuryimaginationto that of poststructuralist intervention. Seen in this light, it will become clear why the author who transvaluated masochism for women (in Die Klavierspielerin, 1983) would engage in affirmation of vampirism among women a few years later. The phantasms ofbothtransgressinggenderborders and reversing hierarchies of activity and passivity are also the very techniques of inverting the inscription and, at the same time, of making the dead come alive again. Masochism and vampirism make a perfect fit in the representation ofwoman's desire, a desire that is to be traced only through the paradoxicalroutes ofa present absence or through the ghostly in-between of undead life.3 And since, in Jelinek's view, thinking about woman will bring to the foreground the particular battle between the sexesbackingfascism,herfemalevampire will jointhe company ofthe homosexual and the Jew. So while sharingsome characteristics with the female vampires hovering over the centuries of literary history, the figure of the vampire in Jelinek's play serves as a medium for an ideological critique along the lines offeminist and cultural politics.

The traditional female vampire in works by male authorsfigures asthe return of repressed sexuality. In this view, the

promised bride in Goethe's "Die Braut von Korinth" (1797) comes back from death to demandherIost eroticlifertLucyinStoker's Dracula (1897) must turn into a female vampire, the Victorian figure of voluptuousness, because she desires three men at once;5 and when Carmilla is staked to end hervampirelife inSheridanLeFanu's"Carmilia" (1872), whatis actually atstakehere is her same-sex desire for Laura that the imagination ofthis time must exoreise.f In anearlyvampirenovelwrittenby a woman, Ossip Schubin's Vollmondzauber of 1899, this traditional pattern is only slightly modified psychologically: an attractive woman who obsessivelyliveshersexualdesire is presented as an undead, who persecutesanddrawsintothegravea youngman who is guilt-ridden because two of his rejected lovers committed suicide." Reinterpretations ofthevampireinliteraturewritten by women address violence against women, their resistance to being exploited orvampirized,to theone-waypornographic aspects and consequences of one dominating sexuality, and their affirmation of gender inversion and a revaluated status for women in societyf In Jelinek's Krankheit, which expands upon the earlier radio play Erziehung eines Vampirs, all of these aspectsaretakenupinthedynamicsoferotics and destruction that the two female vampire figures face vis-a-vis their male partnersf But they also come to represent the vampiriccrossingoflife anddeathina more abstractway, a waythathadbeenprepared by Ingeborg Bachmann's work which already thematizes the necessity for an undeadlifefor womeninanoppressivesociety. WhileJelinek'smainindebtednessto Bachmann concerns her critique of the latent fascism in post-war German and Austrian society(aswillbecomeclearbelow), shealso owes to her the theme of women authors' second-hand existence in literature. Like Jelinek'sfigure ofthevampire, thevampire in Bachmann's poem "Heimweg," from her second volume of poems Anrufung des Gropen Boren (1956), personifies this dan

ger of a life translated into pure text. In the first four stanzas, a question is posed that is answered in the last two. The second, third, and last strophes of "Heimweg" run thus:

Der Vampir im Riicken

iibt den Kinderschritt,

und ich hor ihn atmen,

wenn er kreuzweis tritt.

Folgt er mir schon lange?

Hab ich wen gekrankt?

Was mich retten konnte,

ist noch nicht verschenkt.

'Heinen Fleischs wird sterben,

wer es nicht mehr liebt,

iiber Rausch und Trauer

nur mehr Nachricht gibt.' (103)

Hence, it is thedangerofturninginto avampire which the poet faces between the paradoxical poles of her existence in writing: between the principle from Bachmann's

Frankfurter Vorlesungen: Probleme zeitgenossischerDichtung(1959/60),"Ichschreibe, also bin ich" (ch. 3), and the last sentence from Malina (1971), "Es war Mord" (356), which not only refers to woman's destruction bymanbutalsotowritingas oneofthemost painful ways to die. To the extent that the figures of Elfriede Jelinek's plays only exist in the citational mode, on a stage doubly deprived of life, they lead the vampiric existence whichBachmanndescribedinherpoem as the woman writer's status as endangered species.

Thus, a vampire not only threatens the circulation system of blood, of life and death, and ofgender, but also that oftexts. Jelinek's satirical art, which Birgit Erdle has called "Schriftverstellung,"10 invades a textualbodyofvampirestoriesfrom Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights (1847) to Sheridan LeFanu's "Carmilla" and Bram Stoker's Dracula.si In Jelinek's text, the loss of blood is translated into the register of citation, where the marks or bites are often blurred. Erdle describes this loss of

life on the way from the original to its undead counterpart, its quotation, as the reversalofbody practice into textualpractice, or "recriture" (Erdle 334). For example, Emily blasphemically combines and misquotes two ofJesus's sentences,"Ichbin das A und das 0, der Anfang und das Ende, spricht Gott derHerr..."(Die Offenbarung des Johannes 1,8), and "Wer mein Fleisch isset und trinket mein Blut, der hat das ewige Leben . . ." (Johannes Evangelium 6,54), by reversing subject and object positions: "Ich bin der Anfang und das Ende. Von dem ich esse, der wird ewig leben. "12 In so doing, she refers to the way undeath would make every vampire an anti-Christ ifit hadn't already rendered Christianity another brand of vampirism.l'' Cannilla comments: "Christ sein, das heiBt gegen den Vampir als Prinzip sein . . . Dieses Christentum ist Vampir wie wire Sogar noch mehr. Es lebt nicht, und totist es auch nicht" (K 47). Jelinek adds in an interview thatthevampireladiesdiefrom bulletsconsecrated by the "Christen-Union," which appears in her text within the stammer of its pseudonym "Christel-Union" (K 11; "Nichts ist moglich" 10). Although Emily assumes the position of god when she obtains for herselfCarmilla's vampiric resurrection, she, like Christ, also longs for redemption: "Ich freue mich unbeschreiblich auf eine komplizierte Art von Erlosung" (K 69). Aside from its blasphemous undertones, the fusion of original (A) and quotation (0) renders writing and quoting interchangeable, even in Emily herself, a reversed quotation of the author Emily Bronte. Bronte's poem, quoted by Emily, ends with the line "Jetzt bin ich da" (K 46), a sentence which in the mouth ofher postmodern counterpart in the same play is transformed to "Wir sind und nicht" (K 42). Emily's elected affinity with writers like Bachmannand Bronte, whose existence (or unexistence) was possible exclusively in writing, is one reason to turn them into ladies ofthe night. Jelinek explains in an interview: "Es ist eine Hommage an Emily

Bronte, die ja unter ganz besonderer Lebensverleugnung gelebt hat, die eine unglaublich sinnliche und vitale Literatur geschrieben hat unter fast volligem Lebensverzicht" ("Dieses vampirische Zwischenleben").

But merging the beginning and end withinthe processesofcreatinglifeandtext is vampiric in more than one sense. The established hierarchy ofcreation over quotation is also shaken by the fact that quotation marks a la Karl Kraus double as vampire fangs or the marks of a cannibal's bite.I? In the paralipomena to his Karl Kraus essay, Walter Benjamin refers to Kraus's demonical satirical practice as "Menschenfresserei als Urphanomen der Satire" (1104), as "Einverleibung" (1105), and to the satirical communion as "Verspeisen des Gegners" (1109).15 While Benjamin emphasizes that Kraus sometimes wrote articles in which not a single word was his own, Kraus at the same time regardedthiscannibalisticform ofplagiarism as the mosteffective satiricaltechnique, indeed, as mimesis: "Er macht seine Gegner nach, urn in den kleinsten Fugen ihrer Haltung, die sich nur ibm [?] zeigen, das Brecheisen seiner Interpolationen anzusetzen" (Benjamin 1092). Kraus had to defend himself against many criticisms of his plagiarism. In his essays "YomPlagiat" and"Uberfuhrungeines Plagiators"he postulates what for his postmodern counterpart Elfriede Jelinek has long become second nature in her writing: that the life ofa workofartdepends on thedigestionofdead texts, that is, on the transformation and new contextualization ofquotes. According to Kraus:

Die Sphare, in die die Worte eingesetzt sind, ist von der Sphare, der sie entnommen sind, so verschieden, daf auch nicht die Spur einerinneren Identitat mehrvorhandenist... dal3ebendiese [Aneignung] der originale Wert ist und daf sich die Produktion bier nicht in Worten, sondem in ihrer Anwendung, ihrer Einschopfung vollzieht. ("YomPlagiat" 150)

Jelinek has repeatedly acknowledged the Austrian-Jewish heritage of her aggressive satire, and several critical essays have been dedicated to analyzing the technique, the function, and ideology of her incorporation oftexts.16Most recently, JuttaSchlichcompiled the narrative and stylistic means at workinJelinek'sLust (1989). The technique she calls "Mimikry" (262) is reminiscent of Kraus's mimesis.l?

Der rituelle Wert des Zitierens wird in der Parodieverlacht, einbildungsbiirgerlicher Thxtumgang ad absurdum gefuhrt ... Indem Jelinek im Holderlin-Gebrauch eigentlich uns zitiert, gehen wir als authentische Bestandteile des Grauens, des Verstiimmelns, des Millbrauchs in die fiktive Welt des Grauens, der Verstiimmelung und des Millbrauchs ein. (Schlich 281)

Soeventherepulsive reversalofcreationand destruction, which we witness when Carmilla feeds on her babies instead offeeding them("Carmilla saugtdasKind aus" [K 30]), can be regarded as a self-reflexive gesture pointing more toward satirical "recriture" than to sensationalism: by debunking the myth of maternity, the process of creation and nourishment is reversed not only by Carmilla, but also by Jelinek, who again quotes,in thisscene,BramStoker'sDracula. Dracula's three wives and the "blooferlady" Lucy likewise prey on infants rather than give them nourishment (Stoker 40). The reversalofthehierarchiesofcreationover quotation, represented in the devouring of babies and oftraditionaltexts, pointsmoreover to the fundamental ambiguity in the relationship ofthe vampiric act to the corpus or body,whereby the orderofprocreationis reversed. Male production and female reception ofbodilyfluids become interchangeable. Phallicpenetrationis notlimitedtotheemission of semen, but takes in the discharge of the woman's body: the flow of blood that is at once menstrual or initiatory and maternal, tappedfromthenursingbreast(aswhen Count Dracula has Mina drink his blood at his breast [Stoker298]). The vampire canbe

father and mother, man andwoman atonce. InJelinek's realm ofdoubling and coup

ling, oftransgressingthebordersofgender, genres, and life and death, even the reversal of gender roles is of a double nature. While in Krankheit gender is an important site of struggle, since, in Jelinek's words, there is nothing possible between the sexes because one desire always extinguishes the other ("Nichts ist moglich" 10), the very notionofgenderis,atthesametime, reversed. Jelinek's vampires, who are or turn into lesbians, seem to confirm Sue-Ellen Case's words of caution regarding the dangers of a certain discursive orientation within feminist theory which "reinscribes sexual difference in a way that makes it problematic for the lesbian ... 'to be seen'" (3) and thus for same-sex desire to appear (after sunset) as anything other than undead. That is why, in Jelinek's play, the two women play it safe as long as they remain within the clearly marked divisions ofgender, as when, for example, in the fifth scene of the second act, they stay behind the closed doors of the ladies room ("HEIDKLIFF: ... FurDamen. DerOrt, wowirnicht hindurfen" [K 65]). For and against the vampire hunters, gender still works as defensive barriermuch as the cross keeps out the vampire (a connection Jelinek in fact makes in her stage direction [K 65]). But the door also hides the fact thatfor the lovingcouplebehindit, thedistinguishingsign onthedoor nolongermakessense.Tomake the lesbian threat visible, Jelinek cannot but create a "DOPPELGESCHOPF" (K 72), the creature that must appear as soon as the allegorical restroom door opens-andgives sight to a normally invisible site. Following a dream logic of reversals, this creation translates the double "lack" or hole of the lesbiancouple into its"opposite," the double whole of the new creature, the Doppelgeschopf. But in keeping with the double symbolism or movement of"tracking down the vampire" (penetration and castration), the two vampire ladies also offer a doubly

visible target, one that the hunters-with

the gesture of the savior, "Vater, es wird vollbracht sein" (K 65)~over with their rangeoffire,lettingtheirholy bullets enter one last time: "Mir haben es voll gebracht" (K 75).

Byshowinghow the oneshauntingtheir killers in the first place get labeled or targeted for extinction, the story ofthe female vampires in Krankheit exemplifies a kind ofprojection bearing the marks not only of sexuality and gender, but also ofclass and race. As Freud explains in Totem. und Tabu (1912/13), ghosts and vampires come into being through the defense mechanism of projection (353ff). One's internal feelings ofambivalence are displaced onto an object on the outside-along the gendered and cultural-political trajectories of men against women, heterosexuals against homosexuals, the normal against the perverted, non-Jews against Jews, West against East. Following these projective trajectories, the logic at work in most vampire novels is the anxiety ofreverse appropriation where the colonizerappears under the threat of colonization: the colonial superpower England at the end of the nineteenth century in Bram Stoker's Dracula faces the threat of invasion from Eastern Europe just as the heterosexual male dreads beingatthe receivingendofthe sexual act, the woman's phallic penetration, that characterizes both vampires and the vamp or "new woman" cited in Stoker's novel for the sexual advances her advance in social status promotes.lf From the Voivode Vlad Dracul of the sixteenth century to Bram Stoker's Dracula, it has alwaysbeenthe conqueringrace that-along the axis of its West-East-projection-has felt threatened by the foreign power's eagerness to contaminateits nationalblood supplies. While the Wallachian Prince was turned into the monster Vlad the Impaler becausehe found himselfneedingtodefend his territory against the expansionism of the Turks and of Saxonian traders, the nineteenth-century world power Great Britain-on the verge of its declining years-saw its own imperial practices mirrored back in monstrous form by the marauding Other, Count Dracula.19 In America in the 1990s, it is the dread ofinvasion by Dracula's blood relatives, homosexuals and other carriers ofAIDS, to which vampire movies like Francis Ford Coppola's Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992) and Neil Jordan's adaptation of Anne Rice's Interview With the Vampire (1994) owe their continued success.

In Jelinek's Krankheit the colonizing power that feels colonized is the male sex. Carmilla is the housewife and mother whose transformation into a vamp pays tribute to her predecessor in Sheridan LeFanu's story. The latter "marks one of the first appearances, center stage, ofa female vampire in modem fiction" and is, in tum, the negative mirror image of the narrator Laura, her "erotic primal nature made flesh" (Dijkstra 341). LeFanu's Carmilla propositions Laura with the prospect of their total union: "I live in you; and you would dieforme,Iloveyouso"(LeFanu98). In a harsherversionofthispassage(necessary for the seduction of Jelinek's benumbed housewife and mother Cannilla) Emily commands: "Ich willjetzt gern in dir wohnen. LaBmich rein!" (K23).The following union of two women, which resists the existing order of desire and makes woman not only the object, but also the subject of once transitive, now transgressive urges, is farfrom presenting anyutopiaofcomplete fulfillment.s'' Instead,Emily'swishto show off with phallic teeth the mergers that the vampiric act promotes (of penetrating and receiving at the same time)-those samesex fusions of the sexes that contradict the Platonic symmetrical model of love--can only reveal that to be in possession of any desire is to remain marked as fragile. For Jelinek, lesbian love is not the resolution of the war between the sexes. In her play, desire is empty, in that it presupposes the absence or death of its object, much as the vampire promises total absorption or consumptionby the other-butonlyina purely technical, or nonessential, or immaterial way.

On the essential or ideological side of her negative utopia, the men in Jelinek's piece still payhomage to a cult ofsubjectivity-as in Heidklifl's egomaniacal "Ich bin ein MaB. Ich bin ein MuB"(K 7)-and regard women as nature incarnate: Heidkliff asks Emily, "Und warum willst du nicht bleiben wie du bist? ... Warst du nicht der Pflanzen-und Tierwelt nahe?" (K 34). But as intellectuals, even the men also know of a more sophisticated model ofwomanhood. Thus, when Benno pays a compliment to his wife Carmilla who is pregnant for the sixth time ("Ich staune immer. An dir ist nichts. Aber in dir entsteht vieles" [K 13]), he recognizes and resonates with the theoretical enigmas of femininity as projected lack. But Jelinek learned from Bachmann to face the total void without filling it up with different grades of avoidance. Precisely the effort to eliminate any traces of the feminine leaves the most readable traces. Although Bachmann's Franza sees in the temple of queen Hatschepsut the holes thathavetakentheplace oftheroyal face, she can still read them as scratched out signs, that is, as the signs of the attempted destruction of the memory of the queen by her male successor Thutmosis. Franza comments with a sentence that remains, according to Sigrid Weigel (1bpographien 252), one of the most often-quoted lines infeminist criticism: "Siehst du, sagte sie, abererhatvergessen, daBan der Stelle, woersiegetilgt hat,dochsie stehengeblieben ist. Sie ist abzulesen, weil da nichts ist, wo sie sein soll" (Bachmann, Franza 436). Accordingly, Emily's vampiric self-definitions-"Wir sind und nicht" (K 42); "Ich bin das andere, das es aber auch noch gibt" (K g)-are modeled after the very paradoxes thatany attemptto find and to derme femininity must confront, if it wants to avoidfallinginto thevoidofapositiveidentity model.

But doesn't the route of negativity that Jelinektakesin allofhertextsmerelydouble-via internalization-male projections of women as deviant and deformed? What protection or projection is given by Carmilla's self definition, "Ich bin restlos gar nichts" (K 15)? The nineteenth-century model of woman's resistance ofillness that gives the play its title must also give away a certain captivation to trauma. Carmilla's lines, "Die Krankheit ist schon, Sie ist mir unentbehrlich. Ich bin krank, daherbinich ... Ohne Krankheit ware ich nichts" (K44), echo Benno's "Ihr seid eine einzige Geschichte der Krankheit" (K 53). But this model does not remain unchallenged even at the level of characters and plot. As she often does in this play, Emily unveils the seemingly natural as historically and socially constructed when she counters: "Ich binnurseltenkrank. EineganzeKonstruktion sturzt urn" (K 34). And already Carmilla's other attempt at describing herself, "Ich bin nichts Halbes und nichts Ganzes. Ich bin dazwischen" (K 14) points in a different direction, that of the vampiric existence.

EvaMeyer(Germany's pioneerfeminist poststructuralist) supplied the following epigraph to Krankheit, which refers to Jelinek'schoice ofwoman's (nonlpositionin the in-between, the twilight-zone, the halfworld of existence:

In chinesischen Legenden steht geschrieben, daf groJle Meister in ihre Bilder hineingingen und verschwunden sind. Die Frau ist kein groJler Meister. Deshalb wird ihr Verschwinden me vollkommen seine Sie taucht wieder auf, beschaftigt wie sie ist, mit dem Verschwinden. (K 5)

I want to suggest that-in accordance with this epigraph but in contradistinction to the metaphorical vampirism of her male protagonists (vampirism ala Marx as a substitute for exploitation and reification-Ij-> Jelinek practices a form of metonymical vampirism which motivates her proxy Emily, the otherwriterin the play,as it does, outside the play, the cited or "summoned" EmilyBronte. Butisn'tJelinekestablishing, as Dagmarvon Hoff(114)hassuggested,an absolutist regime over her protagonists, sucking their life blood out ofthem, exploiting them, turning them into victims of her textual desire? Does she deconstruct or only parody the delusion ofidentical subjectivity when she has her vamps prey on husband and fiance, but without any lifeblood oozing out? Or does the emptiness lie in Heidkliff and Hundekoffer, who degrade their partners to servants in the private sector (K 35) and reproduction machines, serving in tum as metaphors for their exploitation by the author in the first place? Much as woman's desire glides on a metonymical axis, appearing and disappearing again, the vampire, in its part-for-whole-appeal, has a metonymical relationship with woman; it stands in for that part of femininity which defines her negatively-the monthly loss ofblood which renders her weak-but reverses it by drinking blood, ifnecessary, after stealing it from the blood banks of the dentist. Unlike the men in her play for whom theirfemale partners pose a threat as soon as they overcome "nature"-as when Benno complains that Cannilla has "etwas Mannliches, das mir nicht gefaIlt" (K 52); or when Heidkliff remarks that Emily no longer obeys the natural menstruation cycle (K 52)~elinek gets around the forms of essentialism.22 Although Benno is a practicing Steuerberater (or better, Anlageberater), he cannot fix Emily's perverse "Veranlagung" (K 22). And Heidkliff, who, as gynecologist and dentist at once, reigns over almost all of woman's orifices-"BENNO: ... erkannwoerwilletwas aus dir herausnehmen" (K 16)-nevertheless feels the need to insert an Ariadne's thread into her sex organs to find his way back through this labyrinth (K 28f.) With or withouttheimpressiveapparatus ofretractable teeth that Emily has Heidkliffinstall for purposes ofshowingoff(K33),the female vampire is already all teeth, emerging as vagina dentata, because "all her orifices are superimposable one onto the other" (Rickels, Aberrations 319). Her bite replaces reproduction and gives posthumous, artificial birth to her victim. The artist Emily's paradoxical self-definition-"Naturbinich, erinnere daher oft an Kunst" (K 8)--can be grasped no longer withinanessentialist discourse, but only withinthe poststructuralist project of interrogating definitions of or as woman. Jacques Derrida seems to answer Carmilla's initial questions, "WO ist mein Platz?" (K 18) and "Wre heife ich doch gleich?" (K 17) and to echo her "Ichverziehe mich lieber" (K 18) when he describes the operation ofthefeminine withinNietzsche's textsas oneofdistance andaversion.23

Corinna Caduffhas confronted the discourse of poststructuralist feminism with several quotes from Jelinek's play. She holds that-seen in the context ofsuch discourse-the scenario of woman's destruction at the end ofKrankheit revokes what the text had otherwise been evoking throughout: the ''utopiancharacterofliberation" (Caduff 119) in the French feminist poststructuralist discourse of the sexes. However, Caduff's preoccupation with vampirism inKrankheit and the position of woman is attributable to the mediation of French thought by feminist Germanists. It is a preoccupation-the "double existence of woman"-that had been hovering about ever since Elisabeth Lenk's essay "Die sich selbst verdoppelnde Frau." Caduffconceptualizes this fluctuating existence as "immerwahrendes Kontinuum von Leben und Tad, als Disharrnonie zwischen materialisiertem Kerper und kultureller Geschichts-und Identitatslosigkeit" (135). This formulation echoes Sigrid Weigel's early attempt, in "Der schielende Blick," at demandinga doubleperspectivein feminist research: woman ought to be seen as a figure ofmalerepresentationon the onehand, and as authorofher own texts onthe other. This outline for feminist studies, as Weigel later acknowledged, goes against one ofdeconstruction's fundamental moves: to have provided a critique of the enlightened subject, decentering the "1" from its position as source andguarantorofmeaning, andrelegating it to an effect oflanguage. Although Weigel refers in her essay to Kristeva's demand that a female practice ought to be negative, "das Sagen des Nicht-Seins" ("Blick"107),shestillclaimshereas a result what should have been hypothesized as constructed in the first place:24 that feminist criticism has to trace women's move from the hidden to the open, from the inauthentic to the authentic, as a step-by-step liberationfrom male perspectives to female writing and language (''Blick"87). So what Caduff sees as a utopian potential-what Jelineksetouttoundermine-merelycarne in through the back door via a dated mediation of French thought.

In my view, if Jelinek eliminates the Doppelgeschopf, this gesture is comparable with deconstructive interventions, insofar as it criticizes an ideological feminism which still succumbs to essentializing notions. Weigel has more recently challenged the different variations in feminist criticism on the theme of an essentializing "feminine aesthetics" (thereby implicitly criticizing her own previous work). In her essay"'DasWeibliche alsMetapherdes Metonymischen': Kritische Oberlegungen zur Konstitution des Weiblichen als Verfahren oder Schreibweise," she turns toward Kristeva's "mimesis," Barthes's "artificial myth," Derrida's "deconstruction," and Irigaray's "parler-femme,"to describe them as "practices of producing mimesis," which do not mirror, but undermine, transgress, or cross out the discourse they are referring to (Weigel 111).These interventions avoid essentializingwoman; instead, they take into accountthefunction of"woman" inthe symbolic,where she supportsthe orderwithout appearing in it. What Kristeva called the "sujet en proces" (trans. "Subjekt im Prozell": 144) constantly propels itself through and between the poles ofthe semiotic (a prelinguistic modality of psychic inscription controlled by the primary processes of displacement and condensation, and, atthe same time, a pre-oedipaldomain where no sexual difference exists) and the symbolic (propositions or representations

constitutive of language as systems of signs, the socialized domain where the Law of the father, his "no," establishes sexual difference). Women are not absorbed by their function which they fulfill only in masquarade. As Luce Irigaray formulates it: they likewise remain elsewhere (78).25 From here, Weigel derives a new outlookon what she had previously called "the double placeofwoman,"one thatshecannow refer to as her "place in the symbolic and elsewhere" ("Metapher" 115). When the vampires in Krankheit cannot see their reflections in the mirror-"EMILY: Ich mochte so gem einmal in einem Spiegel durch mich hindurch auf etwas anderes sehen. Doch das ist mirleiderversagt" (K 33)-they are mirroring Weigel's new insight precisely because they see no doubleimage, no reflection ofthe malegaze, but, like alltrue vampires, literally nothing: "EMILY: In einem Spiegel sehe ich gar nichts" (K 39). The vampire is afraid of mirrors because her absenceinthemnotonly remindsherofher own unrepresentability, but also, as Ellis Hanson clarifies, of "the fatal emptiness of the pleasure he embodies" (328).26 In Jelinek's play, as in poststructuralist feminist discourse, the "feminine" as a deconstructive moment of the philosophical and literary discourse is the paradoxical allegory of a non-representable difference. Woman, who-inthe Lacanian spectrumdoes not exist (Lacan 81), is, in Irigaray's reading of Lacan, the sex which is not one (Irigaray 77), not none. Thus feminist deconstruction takesup theFreudianandLacanian notions of woman as lack, but subverts it: femininity is the moment that crosses out identity, woman is "lafemme," a figure of defiguration and displacement, not Lacan's LA'femme" (Irigaray 112).Like the vampire, woman as the ex-centric surplus cannot be grasped by specular representations or through binary oppositions. Thefeminine-like the undead-is neither here nor there, but, as Shoshana Felman describes it in "Woman and Madness: The Critical Phallacy," somewhere in the real

"as, precisely, other, the unrepresentable as such, the eccentric residue that the specular relationship of vision cannot embrace" (39), or, as Emily prefers to say: "Ich bin nicht abstrakt, dennoch tauche ich an dem einen und sofort an dem anderen Ort auf. Dann wieder bin ich absolut fort" (K 22). Eva Meyer accordingly defines "woman" as the non-truth of truth, as tireless creation of that which does not appear, which lies before/behindlabove the sign iZahlen 29) and is acted out "inbetween" (113). This definition finds an echo in Emily's "Ich bin der Anfang und das Ende. Dazwischen komme ich auch noch after vor" (K 9). Whereas the positionality of her vampires remains vague, Jelinek definitely occupies a poststructuralist position within the feminist critical spectrum. In Katrin Sieg's formulation, which draws on Baudrillard, her vampire "destabilizes the ontological base of discourses organized around dichotomies and celebrates the order of 'equivalence' and 'indifference'" (160).

In attempting to locate the position of woman by conjuringup the dead from their graves, Jelinek begins where Ingeborg Bachmann ended. In her 1984 essay on Bachmann, "Der Krieg mit anderen Mitteln" (an ironic reference to Clausewitz's formula concerning the make-up of diplomacy or psychological warfare which Jelinek simply calls love), Jelinek traces back her own take on the unavoidable war between the sexes to its roots in Bachmann'swork: "Liebe istdie Fortfuhrungdes Krieges mit anderen Mitteln. Auf diesem Schlachtfeld erfolgt eine blutige, manchmalunblutigeVernichtungdes Weiblichen, das nie Subjekt werden darf . . ." ("Krieg" 313). Jelinek sees Bachmann's work as a desperate, detailed attempt to jot down the writing and writhing of female identity. A few years later, Jelinek's vampire play takes for granted what Bachmann's cycle "Todesarten"set outto decipher: the history of the absence of herstory which can be reconstructed only from the traces of extinction and destruction. Egyptian prehistory in the necropolis,whichhadservedinBachmann's Franza fragment as a reminder of racial colonization, and hence as a mirror ofwoman's colonization by man, is familiar territoryfor Jelinek. That is why, in Krankheit, Emily ends an unpleasant conversationwithherhusbandbysaying,before she disappears, "Ich gehe jetzt mit der Stirn gegen den Stein einer Pyramide schlagen" (K 9). She evokes the act of self-aggression with which Franza had repeatedly reacted to male violence in Vienna and Gizeh by banging her head against stone walls (Franza 467), ultimately with deadly consequences. Quoting this passage from Der Fall Franza in her essay-

Ihr Denken rill ab, und dann schlug sie, schlug mit ganzer Kraft, ihren Kopf gegen die Wand in Wien und die Steinquader in Gizeh und sagte laut, und da war ihre andere Stimme: Nein. Nein. ("Krieg"315)-

Jelinek links it to the continuity of fascist violence in relations between men and women. The essay reads fascist ideology as mythification and extermination of whateverdoesnot correspond, withwomanatthe front line:

Die Frau ist reine Natur, dem Blut und Boden verwandt, ... Humus fur die Mythenbildung ... 'Der Faschismus ist das erste in der Beziehung zwischen einem Mann und einer Frau ...' (1. Bachmann). Im Faschismus ist die Frau, wagt sie es, iiber ihre Rolle als Gebarerin und Pflegerin hinauszutreten, Seuche, Feind im Inneren ... Sie wird zurallgemeinenVerderberin, zum Feind von au13en, wie die Juden. ("Krieg" 12)

Since suicide is always committed with or against an internalized other, Franza systematically exterminates the hated other in herself as ifafflicted less with venereal disease than with the literalness of the designation "disease of the sex" (Geschlechtskrankheit)-a program that resonates in Der Fall Franza with Nazi euthanasia or with ethnic cleansing of the black by the white race.

In Krankheit this context is extended to yet another dimension of the blood that is spilled repeatedly in her vampire play. When the vampires' male partners, Heidkliff and-nomen est omen-Rundekoffer, set out to hunt down their bloody vampire lovers, their language (in which Bible and Bildung are short-circuited with Blut und Boden, and God and Goethe with Goebbels) literally goes to the dogs. Heidkliff says, or rather, barks: "Entlastet Mensch und Walden und Wildnis! Gute StimmungNatur! Seidendgiiltigtoten! Mir braucherten Platz! MehrPlatz! Gebt! Mehr Licht! Mehr! Mehr Lichten! Mehr Lausch! Bell! Bell! Bell!" (K 64). By collapsing the enlightened humanist's voice (Goethe's alleged last words) with the expansionistic slogan offascist politics, Jelinek parodies a model of German thinking, the one advertised in Joseph Goebbels' Michael: Ein deutsches Schicksal in Tagebuchbliittern

(1929). In this text, the Bible, Goethe's Faust, andWllhelmMeister'sLehrjahre are the only books that Michael, the writer of the diary entries,fmds worthwhile reading. Longing to find a savior who combines the Faustian GermanwithJesus Christ (about whom he is writing a drama), Michael calls out in an entry of 18 February, ''Licht! Es werde Licht!"(94).Thisis nottheonly quote that Jelinek takes from this fascist work to transform and parody it. When Benno and Heidkliff ventriloquate Michael's words with slight changes, they sound grotesque to be sure, but they also thus share this national hero's pathos, egomania, and a latentfascistagenda. Allquotes fromMichael appearinthefourthscene ofthesecondact, the scene whichpreparestheviolentending by openingonto alandscapefull ofwarmachinery. Benno's seemingly absurd line of thought-"Zerstort muB werden, wenn neu geschaffen soli! Kann nicht den Vampiren befreien und sein Leben ins Schon beziehn, wie man nicht kann die Arbeit freien und das Geld dabei schonen" (K 59)-makes sense when read against the original context in Michael. The diary entry ofJune 16 reads: "Zerstort muf werden, was neu geschaffen werden soll. Mankann nicht die Arbeit befreien und das Geld dabei schonen" (Goebbels 37). In her quote, Jelinek leaves out the larger framework of these thoughts within which Michael identifies work with blood and Germanness, money with gold and Jewishness.27 Instead, she substitutes the vampire as the figure standing in for the Jew, for money, and, ofcourse-twistingthefascist agenda oftotal destruction around one more timefor the kind of destruction which creates new life.

The murder of Emily and Carmilla in the last scene as "enemiesfrom the outside" thus resonates-through the mediation of Goebbel's work, which propagates extinction, and of Bachmann's work, in which women are the placeholders ofthose extinguished-with the extermination of Jews, those other"others"whom thevampire personifies. The vampire, resembling stereotypical anti-Semitic nineteenth-century representations of the Jew, is the topic of Judith Halberstam's excellent essay''Technologies of Monstrosity: Bram Stoker's Dracula." Like the Jew, Dracula represents, she holds, the feminized, perverse, deviant, and criminal body, a monstrous personage with bad blood who is defmed by unstable gender identity, sexual and economic parasitism, degeneracy, and lack of allegiance to a fatherland (337). Dracula's very marked physiognomy, his aquiline nose, arched nostrils, massive eyebrows, and cruel mouth, resemble other nineteenth-century caricatures of Jewishness that attempt to connote criminalization and degeneracy (Halberstam 338). But the vampire not only threatens the circulatory systems of blood (and texts), but also that ofmoney. As Halberstam shows, Draculais connected to the old money and excesses of the aristocracy. He likewise does not let his money circulate, but bleeds gold instead of blood, drainsall resources, and"alwayseats out" (340). With recourse to Hitler's Mein Kampf, in which the discourse of blood, death, and purity is concentrated in the notionoftheJewish"bacillus," Sue-EllenCase describes the vampiric position, which the Jews occupy together with homosexuals and, today, AIDS victims, as that of"the one who waits, strikes, andsoils the living, pure blood" (Case 6). As foreign intruder, the vampire had already appeared in Jelinek's early story ''Der fremde! storenfried der ruhe eines sommerabends der rube eines friedhofs" (1969), and the motif of the undeadkeepsrecurringin severalofherlater texts, in Wolken. Heim (1990), Totenauberg (1991), and, most recently, in ''Die Kinder der Toten" (1994). In all of these texts, undeath thematizes the only apparent death of the German and Austrian past which, however, keeps haunting the living. The endgame scenariowhichthe stagedirection designsfor thelastscene ofthe second act

"Menschenhaufen, die mit ioeifleti Leintuchern bedecktsind ... Uber der Mullhalde roter Schein, wie Brand . ..Alles starrt vor Waffen" (K 71)-stages this return of the past, but this time as fascism directed against women. Woman's marginalization in all areasexcepttherealm ofreproduction must lead directly, according to Jelinek, to this newfascism.28 Thatis why, in herplay, even the last pocket of woman's resistance and legitimation to exist, her reproductive capacity and control, threatens to be taken over by men. Benno, at least, alludes to the latestadvancesingene technology, displaying a kind of pregnant-womb envy underlying his fantasy of becoming a woman: "Hab mich fangen lassen. Nun bin stillig ich und voll der selig Empfanglichkeit, WIT Frauen" (K 60). But even this sentence, which makes sense on the level ofvampiric thought (Benno expects to receive the women's teeth in his neck), turns out to be a quote from Michael taken completely out ofcontext. The diary entry of 25 July, written in connection with Michael's illumination, his idea to write a drama on Jesus Christ, reads: "Nunbinich stillund voll der seligen Empfanglichkeit" (Goebbels 52).

Nevertheless, the omitted text pops up in Krankheit a few pages later when Benno says: "Schreibe morgenen ein Drama auf. Der Held ist der Fels ist Jesum Christrumm" (K 63), quoting Michael's entry of 25 July: "Ich schreibe ein Drama. Der Held ist Jesus Christus" (Goebbels 52).

Neither God, nor Jesus, nor the blessings of bodily work in the mines, in which Michaelspendssome timeas aherooflabor, can offer Michael salvation. Instead, salvation is promised-in the mode offascismby means of a savior of more earthly continence. Michael finds him as an orator in Munich whose name is not mentioned, but who clearly stands for Adolf Hitler. Before this intoxicating experience, Michael in vain seeks fulfillment on his own: "Das Leben ist in diesen Tagen zum Verzweifeln. Krampf, glutende Unrast, Streit mit Gott und Teufel, Krieg urn geistige Existenz. Warum finde ich keine Erfiillung? Ich will ruhigseinundaufErlosungwarten"(Goebbels 51). In her play, Jelinek takes up the fascist longing for salvation, but extends it according to her inside view of the battle between the sexes. Following the logic of vampire hunters, Benno and Heidkliff appear as the saviors of their vampire brides-"BENNO: Mir konnenen erlosen" (K 62). But by conjuring up the fascist undertones of any attempt to save women who have gone astray, Jelinek proves the emptiness ofthiskind ofsalvation. Shechanges the quote from Michael accordingly: "HEIDKLIFF...:MitGottundTeufelfest streiten. Unrasten. Gluten. Streiten auch mit Frauenfuhren im Hauptel, Warum find ich keine Erfullung warum nicht warum nichts? Leer" (K 61).

Antisemitism and a diffuse longing for a saviour figure are not the only points of reference to fascism in Jelinek's play. As in vampirism, the other mechanism at work in fascist thinking is the defense mechanism of projection. In a conversation with the Russian Panslawist Wienurowsky, who is advertising a socialist world revolution, Michael opts for a German revolution that is limited as a national movement. The world-wide expansionism inherent in National Socialist thought is thus projected as if coming from the outside, here from the East. But Michael is ready for the challenge:

Der Russe ist ungerecht gegen uns. Er hat dabei gar keinen Grund dazu. Und dann sehen die Auslander nicht, was unter der Decke liegt. Wir Jungen sind nur erst ein Gedanke, allerdings, aber wir reifen allmahlich zur Tat. Man muI3 uns nur Zeit lassen. WIT sind noch nicht fertig. (Goebbels 36)

In Krankheit, Heidkliff and Hundekoffer are ventriloquated by Michael's pathos, but transfer it from its particular context, the debate about a nationalorintemational revolution, to a more general chauvinism directed against foreigners, especially those from the East. The men's deteriorating language reveals the degeneracy of their thought. Heidkliffadopts the aggressive element within the vampiric position, substituting the attack ofone blood sucker for that of another:

BENNO: ... WIT Jungenen konnen auch bald vom Krieg derzahlen! Wir Mann. Der Russ ist ungerechtig gegen uns. Er hat dabei gar kein Grund dazu. GefraJ3!

HEIDKLIFF: Der Auslander sieht nicht, was unter unserer morschen Decken sich schon strecken wie durstig Zecken. Mir Jungenen sein erst ein Gedank, allerdings, aber mir reifen schon herauI3en aus uns zur Tat! (K 60)

So, while taking up the main targets of traditional vampiric attacks, the institutions of cultural and sexual repression or colonization (nationalism, ethnicity, race, class, patriarchy, heterosexuality, the natural, Christianity, marriage), Jelinek's text extends her diagnosis of the symptomatologyinherentin vampire storiesto thelatent living-on offascism in today's society. This diagnosis, already prevalent in Bachmann's work, is, however, only the starting

point for Jelinek's critique of ideologies as they relate to gender. It is a critique that positions itself in the middle of poststructuralist discourses on femininity. Jelinek displays the repressedotheraspresentonly inits absence, as dead and alive atthe same time. Her undead figures clearly incorporate a phantasmic life: as the ghostly constructions and projections crossing out HER image in the mirror. Or, as Heidkliff summarizes inhis long openingmonologue about woman from antiquity to modernity: "Sie geistert durch eine Oberlieferung!" (K 12). Moreover, Jelinek's monstrous and uncanny transgressions of familiar oppositions reconstruct woman's non-position as the site of "queer" desire. By desperately seeking out the textual demontage of undeath in the place of sexual differences' alleged stability, Jelinek goes beyond gender opposition to admit the unseen other, the lesbian, within the site of struggle for women. Even though Jelinek's lesbian vampire un-does sexual difference as textual demontage, Jelinek gives birth to several undeads: her theater is a non-theater, her themes are non-themes, the structure ofher texts is decentralized, and the differences between main text and subtext are undermined. Thus the "non," the "un," the "de"-preflXes ofherun-live practice beginto render her textual practice visible by "trans-invest[ingJ" (to borrow Sue-Ellen Case's [2] formulation) the tropes of any dominant discursivity. On the other side or site ofwoman's improperburial, subjectpositions are deconstructed in accord with psychoanalytical insights. As the most prominentundeadinJelinek'stext, woman exemplifies the ambivalence of identification which normally remains enclosed in the unconscious-that to love the other means to consume and cannibalize him or to love herto death.29 Jelinek'spolitico-culturalcritique is, however, overshadowedby the immateriality of the protagonists who convey it: the ghosts or schemes hovering through Jelinek's non-texts must face an intertextual existence that has come down

to asheercitationality.AsEvaMeyernoted, the characters in Krankheit, who have turned completely into language, constantly make assertions about themselves as if they wanted to make sure that they control the conditions of their existence ("Vampir" 100). Thisnegativeprintofexistence calledlanguage, however, demands its retranslationbackinto life. Otherwise, and that was the condition of existence of the vampire in Bachmann's poem "Heimweg," it may happen that the artificial creations start to haunt-in the manner ofFrankenstein's monster-their creator.


1Rossmann 27.

2ElfriedeJelinek, "Ich will keinTheater"31. Subsequent references to Jelinek's works will be by title only.

3For an analysis of masochism in Die Klavierspielerin, see my article "D( e)addyfication: Elfriede Jelinek."

4"Aus dem Grabe werd' ich ausgetrieben/ Noch zu suchen das vermillte Gut ..."(Goethe 273).

5"Whycan'ttheyleta girl manythreemen, or as many as want her ..."(Stoker 62).

6This is the first vampire tale that presents a lesbian relationship, here between Carmilla and Laura.

7This story is influenced by E. T. A. Hoffmann's discussion of female vampirism in his Die Serapionsbr~der (1819-21); Ivan Turgenev's "Clara Milic" (1882); and by Prosper Merimee's novella "Lokis" (1869).

BCf. the volume edited by Barbara Neuwirth, Blaf3 sei mein Gesicht: Vampirgeschichten, which contains 24 short stories written by women; they combine ratherconventional with more experimental ways of "writing the vampire."

9The radio play only features the first actof the laterplay, withoutCarmilla and Hundekoffer.

10"Emily ist nicht nur lesbische Vampirin und Krankenschwester ... sondern auch Schriftstellerin-oder besser Schriftverstellerin" (Erdle 336).

11Jelinek'suse ofquotations, which, like the vampire's transgressions, does not respect the traditional borders of inside and outside, becomes clear with regard to Bronte's text from which sheborrows both a figure's name, Heathcliff (Heidkliff), and the name of the author, Emily Bronte. Both Emily and Cannilla share some of her characteristics: Emily is the writer in Jelinek's play, and Carmilla defines herself via her sickness-the permanent pregnancies-which kill her. Bronte died of tuberculosis, that nineteenth-century illness which was responsible for the fantasies about the undead who claim the other family members' lives. For the connection between tuberculosis and vampirism, see Barber.

12Krankheit oder Moderne Frauen 22; hereafter referred to as "K." 13For a discussion of the identification of Jelinek's vampires with Christ, see Janz.

14For a discussion of the Austrian-Jewish heritage of Jelinek's extraordinary language games, see my interview, "EinGesprach mitElfriede Jelinek," especially 129-31. For the differences between Jelinek and Karl Kraus, see Pizer.

151owe the discussion ofvampiric citationality between Benjamin and Kraus to Laurence Rickels's chapter"Aristocriticisms" in his Aberrations ofMourning.

16See, for example, Margarete Kohlenbach's excellent essay "Montage und Mimikry," inwhich she shows how Jelinek's satirical technique does not always arrive at a solid critique of the original text; it can also do violence to it by neglecting the textual or historical context in which the text was embedded. Dagmar L0renz calls Jelinek's humorous attacks affirmative of the hierarchical structures of Western society, not a fundamental revision of ideology (35). Friederike Eigler reads Jelinek's satire, which presents the mishaps of society in their physical effects and deformations, as '"gewissenlose' Erkenntnis" within the anti-metaphysicist tradition of Friedrich Nietzsche's work (54f.).

17Schlich's book offers the first detailed stylisticand narratologicalanalysisoftheentirety of one of Jelinek's texts.

18For an analysis of the advent of new media technology which brought forth the arrival of the new woman, see Kittler.

19See Rickels, "Warum Vampirismus?" 158; Arata 623. Fora discussion of colonialism inits various forms and a good summary of the traditionofvampiretales,seealso Claes 9-20and 64-126.

2oCf. Meyer, "Den Vampir schreiben" 105.

21"Das Kapital ist verstorbne Arbeit, die sich nur vampyrmallig belebt durch Einsaugung lebendiger Arbeit, und um so mehr lebt, je mehr sie davon einsaugt" (Marx 23: 247).

22Fora thoroughanalysisof thenaturediscourse and Jelinek's anti-essentialist position in this play, see Eigler.

23"Perhaps woman-a non-identity, a nonfigure, a simulacrum-is distance's very chasm, the out-distancing of distance ..., distance itself. ... There is no such thing as the essence of woman because woman averts, she is avertedofherself....Womanis butone name for that untruth of truth ..." (Derrida 49ff.).

24For a more detailed criticism of Weigel's approach, see Hahn.

25See lrigaray 78, where she discusses mimesis as the only "way" that has historically been ascribed to women and which needs to be conquered by her in her own way through a female operation in language.

261nthisarticle, Hansonanalyzesessentialist representations of gay men as vampires.

27Goebbel's Michael writes on 10 June: "Faustisch ist die deutsche Seele! In ihr liegt der triebhafte Zug zur Arbeit und ihren Moglichkeiten und die ewige Sehnsucht nach Erlosung vom Geiste" (113). And a year earlier, on 16 June: "... die Arbeit emport sich gegen das Geld. Trager der Arbeit ist das Blut, Trager des Geldesistdas Gold. DerKriegwardererste Akt jener Revolution des 20. Jahrhunderts, in der sich die Arbeit gegen das Geld in Marsch setzt" (37). And finally, on 20 September: "GeldJude, das istSache und Person, die zusammengehoren, Das Geld ist wurzellos. Es steht tiber den Rassen. Langsam fril3t es sich in den gesunden Organismus derVolker hinein und vergiftet allmahlich ihre schopferische Kraft" (137f.).

28"lch glaube eben, daf die konsequente Ausgrenzung der Frauen aus jeder Sphare, aul3er der der biologischen Reproduktion, letztlich zu einemFaschismus fiihren mull, der noch schrecklicher seinwird als jeder, den wirbisher erlebt haben." ("Die Lady-ein Vampir?" 34).

29Cf. Freud's essay "Trauer und Melancholie," especially 203: "... daf die Identifizierung die Vorstufe der Objektwahl ist und die erste, in ihrem Ausdruck ambivalente Art, wie das Ich ein Objekt auszeichnet. Es mochte sich dieses Objekt einverleiben, und zwar der oralen oder kan-nibalischen Phase der Libidoentwicklung entsprechend, auf dem Wege des Fressens."

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