Architectural Drawings at Blickling Hall

by John Maddison
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Title:
Architectural Drawings at Blickling Hall
Author:
John Maddison
Year: 
1991
Publication: 
Architectural History
Volume: 
34
Issue: 
Start Page: 
75
End Page: 
135
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Language: 
English
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Abstract:

 

Architectural drawings at Blickling Hall

by JOHN MADDISON

In 1986 Caroline Stanley-Millson and John Newman published an important article in Architectural History drawn from the extensive Jacobean building accounts for Blickling and in so doing added very considerably to our understanding of the h0use.l This catalogue of architectural drawings at the house continues the story from the death of Sir Henry Hobart, 1st Baronet, in 1626 up to the early twentieth century when for more than thirty years Blickling ceased to be the principal residence of its family. The only drawing to survive from the Jacobean building period (No. I), Lyminge's design for a banqueting house in the east garden, is illustrated in the earlier arti~le.~

By the 1st Baronet's death the house was approaching completion. The new south and east fronts had been linked up successfully with the surviving Tudor range to the west while an untidy compromise of new and old on the north front illustrated in Edmund Prideaux's drawing of the mid-1720s was at least out of view of the main appr~ach.~For the remainder of the century the family's resources were steadily depleted by successive baronets' exertions to maintain the Parliamentarian and Whig interest in Norfolk, so no effort was made to remedy this deficiency. In fact, the first significant building activity to follow Lyminge's work was an attempt to correct certain aspects of the Jacobean design which by the 1690s were considered archaic. Trouble with the foundations of the north-western turret of the Little Courtyard, possibly caused by a defective cellar, gave the 4th Baronet an opportunity to move the front door -which had led from this turret to the screens passage -into the centre of the Great Hall's south wall. Thomas Burrows, the Aylsham carpenter, had begun to set about the whitewashing of the Great Hall on 14 May 1696 but by I August he was seeking payment for 'Idays work of I man filling up ye seler'. On 21 September he billed for three days work by himself, three men and two boys for 'shoring up ye torrit in ye stone cort'. Another two days work saw to the removal of the stone door case and the shoring up of the hall window whose place it was to take.4

The death of the 4th Baronet in a duel arising from vitriolic exchanges during the election of 1698 put an end to any further architectural changes at Blickling for many years. The minority of the 5th Baronet, John Hobart (1693-1756) provided a chance for the family economy to stabilize and later a judicious marriage to Judith Britiffe, daughter of the prosperous Recorder of Norwich, provided a platform from which to launch new projects. His sister Henrietta Howard's liaison with the Prince of Wales moreover secured a place at Court for Hobart and in 1728 a baron's coronet. In the following year he commissioned a handsome estate map to record his remodelling of the Blickling landscape and the separate ownerships into which the estate had been parcelled up in the lean years of the later seventeenth cent~ry.~

Simultaneously, he commissioned William Aikman (1682-1731) to paint his friends, relations and Whig political allies in a grand series of twenty-four full-length portraits in Kentian frames for the Long Gallery. The gallery overlooked the garden which Hobart had remodelled with a new east vista centred on a temple, which, although not shown in the I729 map, must have been built shortly afterwards. It was first described by the vicar of Sustead in 173 8 and is a very close relative of the portico on William Kent's temple at Holkham. It may even have been designed by Kent whose patrons Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Townshend and Thomas Coke were among the sitters in the full- length^.^ The only alteration to the exterior ofhouse at this stage, already evident in Prideaux's drawing of the east front,' was the removal of the asymmetrically placed Jacobean garden door to the north-east turret.

Hobart's perfect ensemble of gallery and garden was not to last long and by 1745 a visitor, William Freeman of Hammels, was already remarking on the immensity of the Blickling library which now filled this the largest room in the house. Until recently we knew nothing of the appearance of Lord Hobart's library. The books had been bequeathed to him on the death in 1742 of his cousin Sir Richard Ellys of Nocton in Lincolnshire and had passed into his hands on the remarriage of Ellys's wife in 1745.Freeman described the library with its remarkable ceiling and took particular note of 'a charming Chimneypiece design'd by Ld Burlington. Sr Richd Ellis who left the Books his Bust is plac'd between the broken parts of a pediment which turn into 2 Scrolls, & from the middle point of one to the other, hangs a Garland neatly executed in delicate white marble quite detach'd . . . '. He goes on to describe the busts of poets which looked down from the book presses and the statues of Plato and Homer standing in a window bay. The fireplace and everything else was removed or remodelled by the 8th Marquess after 1858 but a drawing was made of the fireplace in 1849 (No. 142, Fig.I). Although the original bills for fitting up are lost, a summary of 1802 survives (Appendix I) which shows the respective responsibilities of Joseph Pickford for the fireplace, Scheemakers for the bust of Ellys, Francis Hayman for pictures over the doors and Cheere for fifty-one pieces of sculpture, presumably in plaster. The largest item is, however, 'Ivory's Bills' and this may be the first time that we encounter Thomas Ivory (170~79)at Blickling. His arrival in Norwich in 1745 is dated by his purchase of the Freedom of the City in September of that year, as a carpenter."J Presumably he was in overall charge of the library project at this stage because the bill lists substantial payments to a cabinet maker, a joiner and a carver. It is possible that No. 157 (Fig. 2) is Ivory's design for one of the book presses. Hayman's overdoors, grisailles of reliefs on the arch of Constantine, are the only decorative element to survive the Victorian remodelling and they still hang at Blickling, above the Brown Stairs.

On I August 1750 Robert Brettingharn (1696-1768) was paid by Hobart,ll and the account book of Matthew Brettingham (1699-1769) in 1753-55 includes 'intended alterations' at Blickling Ha11,12 but there are no very obvious signs of what might have been done apart from some richly mouldedjoinery details in the ground-floor rooms of the east front. Hobart had been created Earl of Buckinghamshire in 1746 and after his death in 1756 the 2nd Earl embarked on the task of making architectural sense of the north and west ranges. The job did not begin in earnest until he had returned from his posting as Ambassador to the Court of Catherine the Great from August 1762 to Autumn I 764.l3

Some of the first dated documents which show that new schemes were in hand are

the 176 j drawings (Nos 6-15, Figs 9-12) of Thomas Ivory's son William (1746-1801)

but it is evident that these resulted from the revision of earlier proposals. It was

certainly the 2nd Earl's decision that the new fronts should be neo-Jacobean in style and

in a series of drawings which must surely red ate those by the twenty-year-old William

Ivory we see another hand (Nos 2-5, Figs 3-7) struggling to achieve a broadly Jacobean

effect. The quality of the drawing is at best primitive and is probably the work of the

carpenter and timber merchant-turned architect, Thomas Ivory. In No. j (Fig. 7), a

drawing of the north front, a respectable pastiche of the Jacobean work has emerged

and the drawing is much more studied. It was on the basis of William Ivory's plans that

Lord Buckinghamshire began within a year ofhis return from St Petersburg, a building

programme that was to last seventeen years from 1765 to 1782.

The first recorded work was in the dining room where Lord Buckinghamshire invoked ridicule from the younger members ofhis family by protecting and preserving its large Jacobean overmantel. In three letters in November and December 1765 he informed his aunt, Henrietta Howard, of progress and plans, and sought her support for the retention of the old fireplace. l4 Her influence within the family was considerable and she provided a link with the more advanced antiquarian taste ofthe day through her friendship with Horace Walpole. Moreover, not only did she employ Dr Richard Bentley (1708-82) of Walpole's Committee of Taste to design her Gothick farm at Twickenham in 1758 but she also had long-standing experience of house building through the construction of Marble Hill House in 1724-29. It is conceivable that the elegant Palladian house plan in No. 41 is an early idea for this project.

In his letter of 10 November 1765 Lord Buckinghamshire sought his aunt's backing for his remodelling of the Great Hall. Developing the ideas implicit in the alterations of 1696 he saw it purely as an entrance hall, but now with a great staircase. The Jacobean figures of the Nine Worthies -eight reliefs on the ceiling and, as William Freeman's journal makes clear, a statue ofHector in a niche above the fireplace- were to be swept away. Buckinghamshire pretended that he was to replace them with a satirical group of modern worthies but the actual plans are shown quite clearly in Ivory's contemporary drawings (Nos 13-1 5, Fig. 10). The Jacobean staircase was to be moved into the hall and turned with extra timbers into a grand branching design; a great improvement on the idea shown in William Ivory's earlier plans (Nos 9 and 10, Figs 8 and g).

The general form of the west and north fronts was settled at this time (Nos I I and 12, Figs I I and 12). The new west range looked very much what it was, a bedroom and service wing. But the north front which was to contain some of Buckinghamshire's most important new rooms (an organ room on the ground floor with a new drawing room and state bedroom above) was more grandly treated. The new elevation was one of the most authentic pieces of Jacobean revival to date and an entirely worthy completion of Lyminge's work. By March 1767 workmen were 'pulling down' the 'Old Hall' and 'setting props to support the other parts of the house'. l5 The front wall was being moved forward to allow sufficient space at the foot of the new stairs. At the

same time plans were drawn up for the old Jacobean stairwell where the upper and

lower ante-rooms were to be formed (Nos 16-22, Figs 15 and 16).

On 12 March 1768 B~ckin~hamshire

wrote to say that the design of the north front had been revised (see Nos 26 and 27).16 Meanwhile, work had been progressing on the west front. When his first wife died in 1769 she bequeathed her jewels to allow its completion17 and on 28 February 1771 Robert Copeman, the agent, wrote to the Earl advocating the covering of the new west front with 'Black Mud Tile' and informing him that Mr Ivory in any case needed to make an order of 40,000 tiles for the new hospital in Norwich and would be prepared to add 12,000 for Blickling.18 In July he wrote 'The Building goes on properly and I am in hope now that there will be no stop 'till it's covered in . . . '.I9 In October John Ivory the stone mason and nephew of Thomas was given a substantial advance.20 Extra carpenters were engaged in July 1772~~ The

and in May 1773 Joseph Rose was undertaking the plastering at Bli~kling.~~ bills include references to plastering at Marble Hill in 1770 (the house had come into the 2nd Earl's hands in 1767 on the death ofhis aunt) and at the Buckinghamshire's house in Bond Street in 1774. In June of 1773 Copeman wrote with the news that the plasterers would have finished their work in the 'Five Rooms' (presumably the main west front bedrooms) in a week and that Dixon, the Pimlico joiner, had already put up the greater part of window shutters, doors and He also mentioned that the joiners were putting up the staircase leading from the study to the library. Out in the park work had been progressing on the castellated tower which Lord Buckinghamshire had put up for watching racing. In June Copeman was taking instructions on 'the manner of finishing off the tower'24 and in July Rose's men were painting its windows.

In this year work was underway on the north front. Rose had charged for building a scaffold to repair the entablature of the north-west tower,25 an old Tudor turret which Robert Lyminge had kept and which now needed to be made to match its eastern neighbour. In June 1776 another firm of plasterers, Cato and Swain, received part payment for 'whitewashing' Mr Rose's work in the organ roomz6 and on 14 November 1778 Lord Buckinghamshire received news that John Ivory was ready to pack up and deliver 'the statuary sienna chimney piece' for the Peter the Great room for which he was to be paid one hundred guineas. His cousin William at this moment was directing operations on the Buckinghamshires' Bond Street property27 and it is probable that No. 42 relates to this work.

On 26 April 1779 a letter from William Ivory brought news of a two-fold set-back.

Yarmouth April 26, 1779 My Lord, I have enclosed your Excellency, a drawing for the Frieze and Cornice of the State dressing Room at Blickling half the full size, and a drawing for the Ceiling of the same Room. I have adapted the design in some measure to the stile of the House, and shall be happy that it may find your approbation, -I have been a great deal confined with SirJohn Wodehouse Regt of Militia which has prevented my having an opportunity of going with my father to London, on your Lordships business, but I have examd. his designs and as far as I am able to judge they are extremely well adapted to the convenient purposes of the family apartment -I have had very few opportunities ofLeaving Quarters but on my father's acquainting me, -your Lordship had given directions to -have the Ceiling and Cornice of the State Dressing Room, fitted up at

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

Blickling, -I obtained leave to attend my father Hither, -to give him every assistance in my power which has led me to take the liberty of enclosing these designs to you for that purpose, -I am extreemly sorry the exigencies of the times require such a close attendance from officers of the Militia, that I am obliged to be absent this whole summer at Coxheath Camp, or otherwise yor Lordships commands for finishing this appartment, I shoud with infinite attention have given every assistance to it in my power, -,my father is quite Master of my idea upon these designs, and able to make any alterations on them which you may think proper to direct -my father received a considerable hurt, and a large firr baulk going over his legg and thigh, which renders him at present unable to move about, only on crutches, but considering the violence of the accident, he is in as fine a way ofrecovery as can be expected. I hope in God in a few weeks he will be well enough to attend to any business. ..2s

The following day Thomas Ivory was well enough to write reiterating his intention of carrying onz9 but by 29 May Lord Buckinghamshire received news that:

Mr. Ivory Senr for some days past has greatly declined in Health &has been in a Dangerous and alarming state with strong symptoms of a mortification; he had fully proposed to be in London before this time, but his present state admits not of his stirring from his Room. Dr. Beevor attends him and informs me he is in danger, certainly no prospect ofhis being well enough to stir out for a considerable time, his desirability to attend yor Excellency's business adds greatly to the distress of his mind.30

Thomas Ivory died on 28 August. William Ivory was still tied up with the militia but said that he would do his best to supervise the project when allowed leave of absence and meanwhile suggested that 'Mr. Wyat at London' might be a good person to do the carpenter's work. It seems likely that Samuel Wyatt who had been operating as architect, carpenter, builder and timber merchant from Berwick Street Soho since 1774 was given rather wider responsibility than just the carpentry at Bond Street. In 1781he was undertaking repairs at Marble Hil131 and it seems possible that the sophisticated classicism of the state bedroom at Blickling also owes as much to him as to the Ivorys. A third plasterer made his appearance on 27 April 1779.~'William Wilkins Junior (I 75 1-18 IS), as he signed himself at the end of an estimate for plasterwork 'to be done in the Great Room at Blickling', was the father of the neo-classical architect of the same name and the son of the Norwich plasterer and stucco worker, William Wilkins of St Benedict's parish. He also practised as an architect.

From I 777 to January I 78I Buckinghamshire was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and can have seen little of Blickling, but he returned in time to deal with the decoration and furnishing of the new rooms. In March 1781 Robert Copeman wrote of the latest projects:

I have received your Lordships dated zjrd of last Month, as her Ladyship anymore than your Lordship, do not seem disappointed at the Greenhouse not being completed this Year, am firmly persuaded it will be better not to have the plan of it settled till you are both in the country together, in the meantime the bricks that are wanted over and above what now is shall be made for it and other necessarv tlre~arations.

i 1 -Z ~-~ -----

Your Lordship having already built so much I do not conceive what you can possibly build more, of any great Account and therefore am glad to find that this affair is so settled between your Lordship and her Ladyship that Mr. Ivory may be consulted as to the plan of the Greenhouse rather than any newcomer as he will certainly be better able to settle the charge for the cupola than any stranger could be, who never saw the old one, and of course could not so well judge of a workman's charge oftaking it down etc. -therefore concluding that these affairs are to be left unsettled till your Lordships return to Blickling, shall only pay a part ofthe bills etc.

I believe I am so far acquainted with your Lordship's idea ofthe new intended waiting room as to be able to go through that without Mr. Ivory's assistance. And the same asto her Ladyship's cottage. ..33

The cupola was the Jacobean clock tower on the south front which had been reconstructed under the Ivorys' direction. Its decoration was a rather successful adaptation of motifs from the fireplace ofthe south drawing room but it was only to last in this form for less than half a century. The identity of the unwelcome 'newcomer' is a matter for speculation. Samuel Wyatt is one possibility but so also is Humphry Repton. It may be assumed that the reference to 'her Ladyship's cottage' refers to Lady's Cottage in the Great Wood rather than her seaside retreat at Sheringham and in the following month Mr Greenwood was paid &I 5s. ~d. for 'thatching my Lady's cottage'.34 Humphry Repton's watercolours (Nos 45 and 46, Fig. 21) show alternative possibilities for a romantic arrangement of architectural fragments next to the cottage but whether Repton, who is supposed not to have begun his career as a landscape gardener until 1788, was in any position to design the new Orangery at this stage is very doubtful. The drawings for a 'Green House' (Nos 3 I and 32, Figs 13 and 14) are almost certainly by William Ivory but they are quite different from what was eventually built. The present structure has clear affinities with Samuel Wyatt's vine house at Holkham (1780) but only perhaps in those details which were to some extent mass produced, the Coade stone string-course and metal fanlights. The whole form of the building, on the other hand, is remarkably similar to Repton's architecture in the early '90s (which was to some extent dependent on Wyatt's), notably his lodges at Anthony House, Cornwall proposed in the Red Book of 1792 and the Orangery which he illustrated in the Red Book for Tendring Hall, Suffolk in 1790. 35 If the building of the Orangery was delayed for up to ten years Repton is the most likely candidate (see No. 47), even though it is recorded that William Wilkins was installing water closets in the house in March 1791.~~

William Ivory was still being consulted over architectural matters in 1785 when he wrote to Buckinghamshire with proposals for covering in the Little Courtyard to provide a grand approach to the Great Hall (see No. 33).37 The idea was not pursued and after this date little of consequence was achieved before Buckinghamshire's death in 1793, with the possible exception of the introduction of windows in the east wall of the Temple in 1790.~~

Lord Buckinghamshire's daughter Caroline had married William Assheton Harbord of Gunton in 1792. Blickling was left to this couple while they lived but entailed to the Marquess of Lothian's family via his eldest daughter the Countess of Ancram. Horace Walpole, who had a number of uncharitable things to say about Lord Buckinghamshire, wrote in September 1793 'Lord Buckingham has left but six hundred a year additional to the Countess's fortune of twelve hundred and a small house near Blickling provided she lives there some months of the year. The same absurd condition is tacked to the possession of Blickling by his son-in-law Mr. Harb~rd'.~~

The house near Blickling was Stody Lodge, a substantial thatched cottage ornie (Nos 222-26, Fig. 3 8).

The Harbords' first architectural undertaking at Blickling was the construction of a mausoleum for the 2nd Earl. It was to be situated in the western part of the park, close

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

to Lady's Cottage in whose vicinity the ashes of one of the Buckinghamshire's children had already been deposited (see No. 45). Letters which have recently come to light reveal much about its construction. Joseph Bonomi (1739--1808) provided an estimate in March 1794 but his design was thereafter considerably revised. The drawings (Nos 34-40, Figs 17-20) show how it developed from a two-storey structure into the pure pyramidal form which was built. Final revisions were made in May and by June 1794 agreement had been reached between Lady Caroline Harbord, Bonomi and Henry Wood, the London builder whose Norfolk origins were expected to secure local labourers at good prices. Wood was to be paid 21,850 in three stages. The first instalment was due when the building reached the springing of its internal arches. The next was to be paid on the completion of the brickwork core of the structure (which necessitated the manufacture of special bevelled bricks in the Blickling kiln), and the final sum was due on completion. by August 1795 Bonomi believed that the building was nearly complete, but Wood had proved less than reliable in his account of progress and the architect had to resort to a surprise visit to his workshop in Sloane Square in January 1796 to establish that neither the Earl's sarcophagus nor the marble pavement had yet been despatched to Norfolk, let alone installed at Blickling as Wood had reported. Payment for the consecration and for the translation of the bodies of the Earl and his first wife Mary Anne was made in October 1797 and in December the final account for construction was paid. The total costs were 22,270 4s. 6d. (Appendix 2).40

Records of life at Blickling in the early nineteenth century are slight. Furniture was ordered for the house in 1801 (see Nos 172-74) and in 1809 thoughts were clearly turning to the ornamentation of the estate when an unknown amateur draughtsman produced designs for rustic cottages (No. I 85). In 18 10William Harbord had inherited Lord Suffield's title and estates and for eleven years Blickling and Gunton were to be united. Humphry and John Adey Repton were employed at both properties. The earliest Repton drawings for Gunton are dated 18 16 but an undated letter and drawings (No. 48) from Humphry Repton to his sister Dorothy Adey in Aylsham suggests that the Harbords had employed the Reptons at Blickling some years earlier. Comments on the current political situation at the end, though somewhat contradictory, suggest a date around I 812 and sketches in the body ofthe text indicate what was then the outline of the Secret Garden and the covered seat which remains there today. Designs for the transformation of one of the Lodges at Gunton and for an Orangery there were produced in 1816 (Nos 5c-54, Figs 22 and 23), and at the same time designs for a hot house at Blickling were being prepared (Nos 55 and 56). But within two years the elder Repton had died, followed in 1821 by Lord Suffield.

The Dowager Lady Suffield was now the life tenant ofBlickling and creative energies that might have been dissipated on two properties were to be concentrated on one. Immediately, it seems, she asked John Adey Repton to prepare plans for the house and garden. The earliest change in the architecture of the house may have been the recasting of the west front (Nos 57-62). Early intimations of this alteration are shown in Repton's pencilled proposals on William Ivory's drawing of 1765 (No. I I, Fig. I I)and these were sketched out more explicitly in No. 61 (Fig. 24). Buckler's watercolour41 shows that by 1820 many of Blickling's tall chimneys had been reduced to stumps and yet another by an anonymous artist in 1849~~

(Fig. 40) shows them restored to their

present state. Repton was evidently designing new stacks for the west front (No. 62) and must also have restored those on the east side.

The earliest sketches for the arcades which now link the house to its wings appear on the back of another Ivory drawing (No. 5) and Repton's scribbled note 'an open colonade with contrivance of shutters in bad weather' is one of many instances in which the architect, who had been deaf and dumb since birth, communicated with his patron while sketching out ideas. It is probable that Lady Suffield also made drawings to explain her ideas and it is possible that No. 63 is one of these relating to the arcade. Repton's plans for the arcade (Nos 64-72) are watermarked 1822-23. At the same time he produced a design for a neo-Jacobean gate screen (No. 75, Fig. 30) to run between the great yew hedges fronting the road. Part of the general scheme for tidying up the road frontage involved the truncated tower of the parish church whose mean obelisks Repton intended to replace with a new late Gothic parapet (detailed in No. 64 watermarked 1822 and sketched in No. 90, Figs 31 and 32). But neither this nor the gatescreen was carried out. The west front, the arcades and the raising of the chimneys would, after all, have demanded considerable resources and so would the recladding of the clock tower which Repton undertook after 1828 (NO. 77, Fig. 25). New furniture was designed by Repton for both the house and the parish church at this time. The neo-Jacobean table and settle recorded in Nos 79 to 86 (Fig. 26) left the house early this century. In the church, however, Repton's rood screen ofc. 1825 (NOS 92-96, Fig. 33) is still in situ and is a remarkably early instance of the reintroduction of this liturgical division into an English church. If it seems to establish its designer as a pioneer ecclesiologist it is perhaps better explained as a facet of his antiquarian sensitivity to the character of individual buildings and places. Rood screens in Repton's time were very much a feature of Norfolk churches and remain so today.

The neo-Jacobean vocabulary which he employed at Blickling was, in its scholarly exactitude, very much in advance of most contemporary architects. By contrast, his drawings for the garden at Blickling (Nos 98-122) are far less serious and it is here that we encounter the greatest number of sketch schemes drawn during discussions with Lady Suffield. It is difficult to be certain that some of these are not hers (e. g. the designs for urns Nos 98-101) and there is one sketch in Repton's hand on Lady Suffield's black-bordered mourning notepaper (No. 102). The period in which Repton's work at Blickling got underway coincided with his visit to the Low Countries and to Prussia in 1821-22, where he worked at Utrecht, Arnheim, Neu Hardenburg, Gleinicke and Muskau. The Hardenburg Basket which Repton proposed in a letter to Lady Suffield of October 1823 (No. I 15) was one example of a proposal for Blickling's garden which resulted from his Continental work but the relationship operated in both directions. The most impressive instance in the collection is the neo-Jacobean bridge in his design for Muskau Castle (No. 140, Fig. 39) which is derived entirely from motifs at Blickling. His scheme for a thatched lodge at Gleinicke in May I 822 is strikingly similar to his ideas for the alteration of the Keeper's Lodge at Blickling (No. 127 c. 1819-22, Figs 34 and 3 5).

It is clear from the drawings that Repton was involved in the building, extension, and ornamentation of a number of the Blickling estate cottages (Nos 123-38) and was responsible in particular for the remodelling of the hamlet ofpark Gates which became

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICICLING HALL

a picturesque composition of thatched roofs and decorative barge boards. Repton's aim appears to have been to concentrate his effort on those buildings which could make the most impact on visitors to Blickling, so the alterations to the frontage, to the parish church and Park Gates also had their counterparts further west in a small cluster grouped around the main road as it left the edge of the park. There are, for example, two drawings for the lodge at Bucks Common (Nos 124 and 125, Fig. 36). Although there are no designs for Oulton Lodge which stands nearby, we can be certain that this was also Repton's work. Its half-timbered centrepiece, tall Tudor chimneys and Gothic barge boards strongly recall Aspley Cottage which he designed for Woburn, Bed- fordshire in 1804.~~

It is also possible that Middle Farm opposite Oulton Lodge is a Repton design resembing as it does Nos 13 I (Fig. 37) and 132. At some stage Repton appears to have rebuilt Lady's Cottage (No. 144) and we know from his own account that he removed the Oxnead Fountain from the surroundings shown in his father's watercolours of the cottage (Nos 46 and 47) and placed it in the west garden in front of his remodelled fa~ade (see No. 178).

There is no evidence ofJohn Adey Repton's employment at Blickling after c. 1830. Although he undertook work at Aylsham church, where his brother was church warden after this date, it is evident that local builders were employed in the 1830s and 1840s to put up cattle sheds, stables and cottages on the estate. Most of these are essentially vernacular in character but there are two more ambitious schemes for farm-houses by the Aylsham builder George Burrell (Nos 19-93) whose relationship with Blickling continued until the 1860s.

The Dowager Lady Suffield died in 1850 but long before this the Lothian family, to which Blickling was entailed, had clearly determined to make the house its principal English seat. When the 7th Marquess died in 1841 Edward Blore (1787-1879) was employed to design a Gothic mural monument (1842) for the chancel of Blickling church.44 Further attention was paid to the church when the 8th Marquess came into his inheritance. One of his first acts was to arrange for William Butterfield (I8 14-1900) to design a grand east window as a memorial to Lady Suffield; a handsome Rayonnant five-light design with excellent glass by John Hardman which was finally installed in 1856.~~ a considerable interest in the Ecclesiological

The 8th Marquess had taken Movement and chose Butterfield after visiting a good many new churches in London. While an undergraduate at Christchurch, Oxford, he was also drawn into a more Pre-Raphaelite and Ruskinian orbit through his friendship with the architect and decorative painter John Hungerford Pollen (1820-92). Lothian became a contributor to the University Museum sculpture fund and when he came to remodel some of the rooms at Blickling in I 857 it was to Benjamin Woodward (18 I 5-61) the architect of the museum that he entrusted the work. Pollen was brought in to carry out the painted decoration of Lady Lothian's sitting room, the ceiling of the new morning room (now Brown Drawing Room) and in 1860 the work in the Long Gallery which included a decorative frieze and the low relief carving of a great hooded marble ~himneypiece.~6 The bookcases were remodelled at this time and John O'Shea, whose ambitious sculpture programme at the Oxford museum proved too expensive to complete, embarked at Blickling on a scheme ofnaturalistic foliage carving that was likewise fated to remain half-done for lack of funds.47

Woodward's death in 1861 left Pollen to direct the work but he was perhaps not sufficiently experienced to deal with the modernization of other parts of the house on which the Lothians were to embark a few years later. William Burn (1789--1870) who had worked for the family at Newbattle Abbey in I 836, became involved at Blickling at the beginning of I 864 and was asked to consider a more thorough-going recasting of the house than the essentially decorative work undertaken by Woodward. His first preoccupation was the improvement of the servants' quarters (Nos 144-48). A new kitchen was established in the west wing (whose north and west walls were to be completely rebuilt) and linked to the dining room by a basement passage. This wing was also newly fitted out with game larders, a laundry and a brewhouse. Most of the servants' rooms were however to remain in the two lower floors of the west front. Burn had trouble relating the floor levels here to the rest of the house, a pre-Jacobean problem which was never satisfactorily solved. He discovered another awkward inheritence in January I 865 when it was realized that the brick skin of the west front was not at any point bonded to the body of the old Tudor wall and was bulging dangerously in places.'I have not in any building', he wrote, 'met with such an extraordinary amount of patched work, old doors and window openings filled with rubbish. . . as in this house.' In the end Burn was able to insert the necessary bond stones to hold the structure together without too much rebuilding and today the exterior ofthe west front gives little idea of its archaeological complexity or of the shoddy practices of the Georgian builders. In the end Burn was to make no significant alteration to the state rooms. The plans which he submitted in May 1865 (No. 143) for a new grand route from the main stairs to the Peter the Great Room were not carried out. They included a lift in the north-east corner of the rear courtyard which may have been requested because of the undiagnosed and disabling illness which confined the 8th Marquess to a wheelchair in the early I 860s. Alterations to the east wing were also considered by Burn but his ideas for the introduction of coach houses were not pursued. 48 Instead, in I 869 Robert Bartram, an Aylsham builder, provided plans for the alteration and refitting of the wing with new stables and loose boxes (Nos 151-53).

The year 1870 saw the death not only of the 8th Marquess but also of William Burn. Once more the house was in the life tenancy of a widow and just as Lady Suffield used the early years of her widowhood to remodel Blickling and its garden so Lady Lothian now threw herselfinto major works. The Lothians had begun to redesign the grounds early in the 1860s. Bills for altering terraces, building the walls of the moat and constructing new bridges were submitted by various contractors in 1864 and 1865 and by I866 the margin of the lake had been pushed back to create more garden on the north side.49 In I 870 Lady Lothian put in hand an ambitious scheme for the garden to the east ofthe house. Nos 178 to 181 are the drawings ofMatthew Digby Wyatt (1820-77) for a layout of brick terraces around a new parterre. Markham Ne~field,~~

the landscape engineer, was responsible for excavation work but Lady Lothian herself planned the bedding layout. The planting design drawn up in No. I 82 is a rejected proposal whose authorship is uncertain. Robert Bartram was the builder of the terrace walls and his estimate, which was based on a simpler scheme than those illustrated in the surviving Wyatt drawings, prompted further economies and simplifications. In March 1871 a basic scheme was agreed upon. In 1873 Bartram was paid for moving the Oxnead fountain to the centre of the new parterre and it appears that Wyatt's terrace walls were still in the process of construction in 1875. The ornamental features were not added until 187617.~~

As the refashioning of the east garden proceeded George Edmund Street (I832-8 I) was directing the restoration of Blickling parish church as a memorial to the 8th Marquess. Proposals were made in I 872 and I 873. In I 874 fire gutted the north end of the east wing at the hall but this accident did not, evidently, slow up the work on the church. In 1876 the job was completed with the construction of the bell tower and the introduction of a splendid monument to the late marquess. The effigy and flanking angels were carved by G. F. Watts (1817-1904) and Pollen was responsible for the Gothic tomb chest.

The years 1884 to 1886 saw another major campaign of work on the house. Maurice B. Adams (18491933) was brought in to repair the roofs, reorganize the drains, and provide a new water supply for fire fighting (Nos 155 and 156).~~

The circular thatched water tank on the early eighteenth-century mount achieved this last objective and provided another ornamental building for the landscape of the park.

The catalogue contains a number of mainly nineteenth-century designs for farm- houses, cottages (Nos 184-204) and farm buildings on the Blickling estate (Nos 20521).Some of the cottage designs reflect changing fashions, but it is interesting that the more complex and ambitious Victorian designs (e.g. Nos 200-03) were not built, so that with the exception of one or two simple Victorian and Edwardian cottages (e.g. No. 199) and Blickling school (begun 1867-68) the basic character ofthe estate villages remained more or less as John Adey Repton left them in the 1820s. The plans for farm buildings are in most cases difficult to date accurately and for the most part are extremely simple. They are, however, a valuable survival of a kind of architectural drawing that is more ephemeral than the handsomely presented schemes of the professional architects.

NOTES

Abbreviation: NNRO Norfolk and Norwich Record Office

I Architectural History, Vol. 29 (1986), pp. 1-43.

2 Ibid., Fig. 5.

3 John Harris, 'The Prideaux Collection of Topographical Drawings', Architectural History, Vol. 7 (1964), Fig. 8.   4 NNRO NRS 16007 31Fg. Burrows also rebuilt the gable at the north end of the east wing in August and  

September 1695. The iron ties bear the initials of the 4th Baronet and Elizabeth Maynard his wife.  

5 The map, by James Corbridge, hangs in the house.   6 J. L. Phibbs, Blickling Hall Survey (1981), p. 16. Kent worked at Houghton for Walpole in 17263 I, at Raynham   for Townshend c. 1731 and was involved in the design of Holkham for Coke in 1734.   7 Harris, 'The Prideaux Collection . . .', Fig. 7.   8 Soane Museum shelf 46A. I am grateful to John Harris for drawing this account to my attention.   9 NNRO NRS 22 702 Z 64.

10 Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary ofBritish Architects (1978), pp. 447-48 Stanley J. Wearing, Georgian h'orwich. Its Builders (1926), pp. 11-36 A certain William Ivory (not to be confused with Thomas's son) who had   purchased the freedom of the City on 15 January I730 is described as a 'joyner'.   11 NNRO NRS 21089 72x1.  

12 D. E. Howell James, 'Matthew Brettingham's Account Book', Norfolk Archaeology, xxxv (1971). He was also   working in 1750-51, cf. M. P. G. Draper, Marble Hill House (1970)~pp. 43-44. Brettingham's account book is in   the Public Record Office C108/362.  

13 Described in J. M. Maddison, Blickling Hall (1989), pp. 32-34. 14 J. W. Croker, Lady Suffolk's Letters (1824), Vol. 11, pp. 304, 307, 310. 15 NNRO NRS I4 630. 16 NNRO MC3 284. 17 This act is recorded in an inscription on the front: MARY ANNE COUNTESS OF BUCKINGHAM- /DAUGHTER OF SIR THOMAS DRURY BAR~IBEQUEATHED HER JEWELS TOWARDS TH~EXPENCE OF ERECTING THIS FRONTIANNO DOMINI MDCCLXIX. 18 NNRO NRS 14625. 19 NNRO NRS 1425. 20 NNRO NRS 14630 29 DI. 21 NNRO NRS 14625. 22 NNRO NRS 19180 33E7. 23 NNRO NRS 14625, cf. also NRS 8650 21C4. Copeman's letter to Lord Buckinghamshire of 14 August 1773 describes the imminent completion of the carpenters' work. 24 NNRO NRS 14625. 25 NNRO NRS 19180 33E7. 26 Ibid. 27 NNRO NRS 14630. 28 NNRO NRS 19180 33E7. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 31 Draper, Marble Hill House, p. 50. 32 NNRO NRS 19180 33E7. 33 NNRO NRS 14625. 34 Ibid. 35 The Red Books ofHumphry Repton (facsimile, 1976). The Red Book for Tendring is in a private collection. 36 NNRO MC31365 477X. 37 John Ivory the mason was still working for Buckinghamshire in January I790 when he provided a chimneypiece for his study NNRO MC3 365 477X. 38 On 4 February 1790 Mr Stone the builder was to be given Lord Buckinghamshire's 'orders respecting the temple' and on 23 April Copeman was able to write to his employer, 'The alteration is finished at the Temple and I am persuaded that your Lordship will like it -if it has not been mentioned, her Ladyship will be agreeably surprised'. NNRO MC3 365 477X. 39 W. S. Lewis, Horace Walpole's Correspondence (1944)~ Vol. 12, p. 5. 40 The Bonomi letters and accounts have been recently deposited at NNRO and are not yet catalogued. 41 In the Blicking collection and illustrated inJ. M. Maddison, 'Blickling Hall, Norfolk I' Country Life, 17 March 1988. 42 In the Blickling collection. 43 Illustrated in G. Carter, P. Goode and K. Laurie,Humphry Repton Landscape Gardener 1752-1818 (1982), Col. pl. 5. 44 Colvin, Dictionary, p. 120, and NNRO NRS 10807 25D2. 45 Lord Lothian met Butterfield on 25November 185 I (information from Lothian's diaries held at Blickling). Cf. NNRO MS 18273 3jB1, and Paul Thompson, William Butterfield (1971)~pp. 464, 465 and 470. 46 G. Fisher and H. Smith,John Hungerford Pollen and his Decorative work at Blickling, in National Trust Year Book 1975-6, pp. 112-19. 47 Benjamin Woodward paid Pollen for stained-glass designs in 1858 and spent two days at Blickling in July 1860 (NNRO MC~II~I).

The books were removed from the library in this month preparatory to the start of work. James Powell and Sons of Whitefriars were billed in 1862 for making the stained glass for Lady Lothian's sitting room in 1860 (now to be seen in the east window of Erpingham Church) and for the coats of arms completed according to Pollen's cartoons in September 1861 for the north window of the Long Gallery (NNRO MC~II 59 466x7). O'Shea received payment in September 1860 (NNRO MC~II~I),

a total of £43 for work between

I I January and 27 June 1861 (NNRO MC31147). For the problem of over expenditure see NNRO NRS 18275 33B1. 48 The correspondence between William Burn, Lord and Lady Lothian and Robert Parmeter the agent between I 864 and 1866 is held in the NNRO and is as follows: NRS 19373 42A4. Two letters from Burn to Lady Lothian in March concerning the servants' rooms in the west wing and west front: MC3126311. Three letters from Burn to Lady Lothian one ofwhich (I 5July 1864) estimates the cost ofworks to the main building at f2,222 and to the west wing $4,315. Another (7 January 1865) deals with the structural problems of the west front wall. Burn's demolition of the rear portions of the west wing is related in Parmeter's letter of 13 September 1864 (NRS 18275 33B1). Rising costs are mentioned in his letter of 18 January 1865. By 2 February 1865 the problems of the west wall seemed less serious but the real costs greatly exceeded the estimates. On 25 May 1865 (MC31263111) Burn described to Lady Lothian his proposals for the new staircase and lifts. In the same month he was considering the alteration of the east wing. The building of the moat wall is discussed in Burn's letter to Lady Lothian of 18 September 1865 (MC31263117) and on 4 October (MC31263118) he supplied estimates for the drainage of the west wine, the lowering ofLime Tree Walk, fitting out the Brew House and Wash House and various other minor

-

works wGh Messrs ~ucas. 49 A tender for 'Pleasure Ground Improvements' was advertised in November 1863 (NNRO MC31167). Messrs Bussev billed for work carried out the previous year 'for extending the width of terraces to make the north side flush with the moat wall on the N. side df all', or increasing slope of Terrace' and 'For extending walk on north side of Pleasure Grounds and filling up an old one' and 'For carting mud over piece reclaimed from the Lake' (NNRO MC31167 466x7). James Horstead, an Aylsham bricklayer was paid for various works in 1864; taking down the old boat house and the summer house, building the moat wall and repairing one of the bridges. Iron railings for the edge of the moat were supplied by J. Salmon the local blacksmith in 1864 (NNRO MC31171 466x8, MC31167 466x7). 50 NNRO MC31264, Nesfield's specification. 5 I This is explained in Wyatt's letter of 3 March 1871. recently deposited in the NNRO. Bartram's bills for 187112 are in NNRO: MC31159 466x8; MC31193; MC31213. For his work in 1875 see MC31zzz. Austin and Seeley's bills for ornamental stone features in 1875 are MC3lzzz and in 187617 MC3lzz6. 52 Adams' specification is NNRO MC31547 516x4. Immediately after the 1874 fire in the east wing advice was taken on the installation of a fire fighting water supply. See bill for consqltation by Easton and Anderson in 1875 (NNRO MC31226).

APPENDIX I

A letter of 1802 summarizing the expenditure of c. 174s in fitting out the library (NNRO NRS 22702 z 64).

Lincolns Inn

Dr Sirs 12thAust. 1802 Enclosed we send you a copy of a schedule of the Bills for the fitting up the Blickling Library, that we received from Lord Buckinghamshire -It does not particularise the articles, but ifit will enable Lady Caroline Harbord to inform herselfwhat belongs to Lord Buck" we shall be glad to have the value ascertained in some mode mutually to be agreed upon. Lord Buck" wishes to have the bust of Sir Richard Ellys to send to Nocton, which we will thank you to communicate to Lady Caroline Harbord.

we are etc, Cotes and Woodcock

Scheemaker for the bust ofsir Richard Ellys   Hayman for pictures over the doors   Cheere for 28 bustos, 20 vases

3 statues packing etc.   West Cabinet maker   Robarts for five frames   Carriage of furniture   Pickford for the chimneypiece   Mason Packing the Books   Carriage 85packing cases  

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 34: 1991
Ivory's Bills Ditto James Lillie Joiner Wiliam Robarts Carver Newman Plaisterer Markes Glazier Slack painter
APPENDIX 2
Account of Building the Mausoleum at Blickling Henry Wood
First payment Recvd ofLady Caroline Second Do o f Do -of Col Harbord on acct of the third pay.mt ofMr. Copeman on acct. ofDo. -ofCol. Harbord on acct. ofDo. -
about 1700.00 more or less
Do. for 171,000 Bricks Do. Bevel1 19,000 Do.66 Chaldren LIme 9Paid by Hy Wood on account of Bricks &Lime &zzz. &200. 0. o 0. o
NB Sum Small quantity of Lime had [illegible]
Ballance 21722. 548 0.4. o6
By Contract By aditional Brick work to Do in I Rods Feet the Foundation above the planking 6= 123 by Estimate ofMarble floor by Estimate of First Monument Exclusive ofcarriage by Estimate of second Monument 43. 15. 6For aditional Marbles & ornaments to Do. I 5. o. o For Corronet and arms in Marble to Fix over the first monument For aditional work in the 2 Side Recesses of Walls stucco arches &c.      

Carriage of the 2 Monuments with the Packing boxes Cartadge Fright to Yarmouth and fright to aylsham and Cartage of one

I

Estimate of an Iron Raling &C.

APPENDIX 3

The Album in which some of the drawings were originally kept has a table of contents which is given below. The Album measures 594 X 43 I mm, has a leather spine and marbled covers. The contents page is watermarked IV LVG Crown and Fleur-de-lis in shield. There are 3 I numbered leaves of coarse blue paper. It was probably assembled in the mid-1760s. In the 1930s the contents page was filled up with pencilled numbers and identifications in a hand which imitated the eighteenth-century script. The same hand pencilled numbers to some of the drawings and these should not be confused with the original numbering.

ALBUM: TABLE OF CONTENTS

A reference to the Drawings

I.

  1. A design for the North Front -A general section of the North Front. -A Section of one end of the State dressing room and Study

     

  2.  

-

4. A design for the Chimney Piece to the State dressing Room ofthe North Front

-A design for the Chimney Piece to the Ante Room -A design for the Chimney Piece to Ditto -A design of an Entablature for the Ante Room out of the

  1. A plann, Elevation, Section of the building in the Park -A design for a Cottage.

     

  2. A plann of the West Front No. I Lower Floor 2 Mizzinin Floor of Offices 3 principal floor of

     

Chambers -The Elevation of the West Front

  1. A Plann of the North Front -A d o of do

     

  2. A design for the North Front.

     

  3. A general1 Plann of Blickling House in the Year 1761.

     

  4. The Section of the Great Eating Room.

     

-

I I. The Section No. I Anti Room to the Great Eating Room -Ditto -2 Anti Room to the Great Drawing Room

12. The plannd Section of the Hall and Staircase.

NNRO Norfork and Norwich Record Office Album Numbers refer to Appendix 3 Dimensions are given in millimetres

1 Robert Lyminge (-1628). Design for a banqueting house in thegarden at Blickling. 1620s

Insc: 'The front ofthe banketting house to ye garden/as now wee doe it; [on wall at left] "Part of ye brick walythat is already coped/to his height and finisedto ye high wall frodye bossell to ye willernes"; [on terrace wall to left of central stair] "The brickwork reared to the Leaneing hight of the banketting house within"; [top left] "Sr. I desyre yor Worshipp to perdon the roughnes/of the plott for it was don in hastelyou may sett staturers one thesl bossells of whatt you will budthey would bee of stone/& as bigg as ye lyfe/or els they will make no shew but I leave it to your wor discretion"; [in central arch] "The arch of the/midle seate thatlfronts the hous &lgar- den"; [on stairs below] "The stare from the high walk up/to the banketting house" [top right] "This is the maner of viniall upon the bossells of brickland finished redd answerable to ye rest of ye workelwhich will be no more chardge to you and doelvery well. Specially for ye present tyme &ifiere after you will sett statures and that you/mislike with this it is no loss or nott much to/tak thes tops downe and at your pleasur tolsett up other for I know ye fi ures wilynott be gott don in no tyme and $hey be nothing don to them they/will stand naked & disgrace ye resdof the worke & thes shall be sudenly/dispacht therfor I pray Sr lett it be so."; [on wall at right] "Part of ye brickwall/allredy don that goeth/from ye bossell to y church/ward."; [bottom right] "Sr. I humbly Crave perdon of yor Worship for presenting you so/homely a plott for I know you do nott stand upon any curiosity/but for the meaneing ofthe thing which I have don heere/very roughly and my tyme very shortt/~O~~~~

LEMYNG" ' Watermark: Shield, Star M Pen and brown ink and (statue of Hercules)

pencil (370 X 478) The only surviving drawing by the architect of Blickling and Hatfield. The annotations

indicate that the banqueting house stood on the highest of a series of raised walks ranged to the east of the house and was part of a wall which ran between the wilderness at the north and the church to the south. The structure has much in common with the architecture of the house but the balustrading resembles Lym- inge's staircase at Hatfield. The newel1 figures of beasts holding shields are to be found both at Hatfield and on the parapets of the south front of Felbrigg Hall which is almost cer- tainly Lyminge's work. The drawing is illus- trated in C. Stanley-Millson and J. Newman, 'Blickling Hall: the Building of a Jacobean Mansion', Architectural History, Vol. 29, Fig. 5.

z Thomas Ivory (?).Elevationfor remodelling of westjont with ground plan for remodelling of the house (Fig.3). c. 1760

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis in shield and crown

Pen and ink with wash and pencil alterations (298 x 375) The elevation proposes an eleven-bay fa~ade

of two storeys with three-storey turrets and a projecting central bay with a shaped gable. The windows of the piano nobile are pedi- mented and there is a central doorway at ground level. The height of the turrets is con- siderably reduced to achieve the proportional relationships of the Palladian tower house tra- dition (represented locally by Houghton and Langley Park) while retaining their Jacobean roof profile and adopting the gable design of the south front.

Not all the elements shown in the plan can be dated with confidence. The south front entrance and front courtyard remain in their early seventeenth-century form. The doors of the southern courtyard turrets appear to have been blocked. The centering of the Great Hall entrance (it had originally been in the east face of the north-west corner turret) had been achieved in 1696 (see p. 75)when presumably the hall screen had been removed. In this design a door leads from the north wall of the hall into a long narrow open court and, at the northern end to a screen of three open arches behind which a staircase rises to the large room projecting from the north front. The arches are shown in James Corbridge's survey map of

ARCHITECTURAL DRAW INGS AT BLICKLING HALL 9I

1729 and the projecting room features in Edmund Prideaux's drawing of the north front of 1725 (see p. 75). The canted window bays flanking it are proposals.

The east range (beginning at the southern end) shows the parlour with three openings in its north wall (one from the entrance from the great stairs and the others for two small rooms). The Jacobean stairs are shown in their original site with an entrance from the second half-landing into what may have been the Jacobean chapel closet. There is no sign of the doorway and bridge which once led from below this half-landing into the garden. The next room is in the space formerly occupied by the Jacobean chapel. North of this is a grand bed chamber with a pillared bed alcove. Behind the bed is a dark closet flanked bv doors which lead to a square room (still extant) and north of this is what became the 2nd Earl's study (now called the Garden Room).

Seven rooms (excluding the turrets) are shown in the new west front. This scheme proposes extensive remodelling but does not resolve the use of the large south-west room which is filled up by pencilled suggestions for its subdivision including a staircase to the north. Further pencilled amendments suggest new positions for fireplaces in the other rooms and for canted neo-Jacobean window bays, like those proposed for the north front.

3 Thomas Ivory (?).Elevationfor northjont of the house (Fig. 4). c. 1760

Watermark: IV

Pen and ink, with wash and minor pencil

amendments (228 x 355) Although stylistically related to No. 2 this drawing is closer to the ideas implied in the plans of No. 4. The new mullioned window bay is rectangular in plan like the existing window to the gallery and the three-bay cen- trepiece is of only slight projection and there- fore implies the total demolition of the projecting room shown extant in No. 2. The overall treatment does however have much in common with the west elevation shown in No. 2. The drawing technique is identical and it likewise requires the lowering of the turrets. The figure on the central gable is derived from the Jacobean statue of Fortitude on the south front but the decorative gables to the window bays are fanciful designs with no clear Jaco- bean precedent.

4 Thomas Ivory(?) Ground and first-floor plans for the remodelling of the house (Figs 5 and 6).

c. 1760

Watermark: IV Pen and ink, with wash (465 x 324) The plans propose the demolition of the build-

ing in the centre of the north front which is recorded in Prideaux's drawings of the mid- 1720s. But they predate the creation of the Chinese bedroom and dressing room out of the Jacobean withdrawing chamber, which is shown here intact in the centre of the south front first floor. A vaulted passage runs from north wall of the Great Hall to a new grand stair at the north end of the building which would give access to a 'salon' in the position of the future Peter the Great Room. Doors from the 'Salon' were to lead to the Long Gallery and a 'Drawing Room' in the position of the present state bedroom. Two major secondary staircases are shown, one next to the new grand staircase and another in the centre of the west front. The winding stairs are shown in the present position (south-west corner of the small courtyard). The doorway in the base of the north-east turret was created before Edmund Prideaux made his drawing of the east froct c. 1725.

5 Thomas Ivory(?) Design for the north font (Fig. 7). c. 1760

Verso: Sketches by John Adey Repton for arcade linking the house to the East Wing. Insc: 'an open colonade with contrivance of shutters in bad weather'

Watermark: Part of fleur-de-lis and crown with 4GR beneath Pen and ink with wash and some pencil

(230 x 340) This design for the north front is close in technique to No. 2 which it also resembles in proposing the lowering of the towers. In other respects it is more Jacobean in feeling and closely follows the fenestration of the early seventeenth-century east front. The Repton sketches on the verso are of c. 1822 (see Nos

63-71).

DRAWINGS BY WILLIAM IVORY (17461801) FOR BLICKLING HALL AND SURROUNDING BUILDINGS

6 Sketch plan of ground-floor rooms of west and

north front c. 1765 Insc: 'Ground Floor/ A House Stewards Rooms/B Do . . . bed ROO& The Stewards eatin room/^ butlers Pantry/E Vestibule/!/G Housekeepers bed ~oom/H House Keepers Rood Do. . . china Closet/K Do . . . Store Rooms'

Verso: Pencil drawing of human profile Pen and brown ink with pencil (289 X 480) The three central bays of the west front are

brought forward slightly in this scheme.

7 Sketch plan of west and north front first joor.

c. 1765 Insc: 'Principal Floor' Watermark: IV Pen and brown ink with pencil (289 x 348) Part of the scheme shown in No. 6. The

quatrefoil piers shown in the state bedroom (lower left) suggest a gothic treatment.

S (Album No. 6 (I)) Plan of the basement of the westpont. 1765

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1765 No I' Watermark: IV Pen and ink (brown and red) with some wash   (294 x 467)

The drawing shows a series of rooms; larder in   the north-west turret with charcoal house out-   side, kitchen; scullery; servants' hall; stairs;   butler's pantry and cellars.  

9 (Album No. 6(z)) Part plan ofgroundjoor of house showing west range with front entrance, courtyavds, Great Hall etc (Fig. 8). 1765

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1765 No 2' Watermark: Fleur-de-lis above shield   Pen and ink (brown and red) (363 x 427) The plan shows an early idea for moving the  

staircase into the Great Hall employing a single flight arrangement. The uses of some of  

the proposed new ground-floor rooms on the west front are shown. From thenorth they are: 'House Steward's Bedroom; Land Steward's Office; Steward's Eating Room; Vestibule, Butler's Pantry; Housekeeper's Room'. On the north front is an 'Eating Room'. It was intended to revet the former moat with brick- work on the western side and provide a bridge to the central entrance. The pitched roof of the charcoal house is shown at the north end of the moat.

lo (Album No. 6(3)) First-floorplan of the house (Fig. 9). 1765

I ~ ~ ~

<wmI~~~~: 1765N~ 33 Watermark: IV Pen and ink (brown and red) (299 x 470) With the exception of the form taken by the

great stairs this design shows many of the key elements of the 2nd Earl's final scheme. Begin- ning at the south end the old withdrawing chamber has become the Chinese bedroom and dressing room. In the centre ofthe plan the position (though not the plan) of what was to become the Brown Staircase has been indica- ted. At the north end are the general volumes of the future Peter the Great Room and the State Bedroom.

1 I (Album No. 6) Elevation for the west front (Fig. 11). 1765

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1765'

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis over shield with bend Pen and dark brown ink with wash and pencil

alterations (284 X 458) This elevation is probably close to what was built by the 2nd Earl and it was the unusual uniformity of this scheme that prompted Silas Neville's comment in 1782 that 'the new part is very inferior and looks more like an hospital than a nobleman's seat' (B. Cozens Hardy, The Diary of Silas Neville 1767-1788(1950)~

p. 298). In this design the towers are retained at their original height and William Ivory's earlier idea of expressing the three central bays (Nos 6 and 7) has been abandoned. Pencilled additions suggest ways in which the design could be improved with three shaped gables, hood moulds and the introduction of pro- jecting elements. These are roba ably by John Adey Repton whose final solutionis illustrated in No. 61.

12 (Album No, 2) Design for the north jont (Fig. 12). 1765 Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1765' Watermark: IV Pen and dark brown ink and wash (269 x 303)

This design is close to the 2nd Earl's executed

scheme and differs only in that the latter kept and the gable over the gallery window and devised a different solution for the fenestration of the three central bays, giv- ing them a flat roof and ~edimented windows (see Nos 26 and 27).

13 (Album No. 12) Ceiling plan and elevationfor the remodelling of the Great Hall as a stair hall (Fig. I 0). 1765

Insc: 'W. Ivory 1765'

Watermark: IVILLEDARY LVG 4 fleur-delis and crown

Pen and brown ink with sepia and blue wash (525 x 795) This drawing shows the hall as remodelled in 1767. In the final scheme the ceiling was elab- orated by rectangular panels at either end whereas the gallery ceiling was simplified. The bull's head crest was supplanted by the com- plete figure of a bull and the niches above the quarter landings were given carved wooden reliefs of Elizabeth I and Anne Boleyn.

14 A plan of the Great Hall showing the staircase   as built. 1765 Scale: 5 ft :I in. Insc: 'W. Ivory 1765'  

Watermark: IV Pen and ink with some pencil and brown wash (365 x 425).

15 Full-scale drawing of the Great Hall cornice.

c. 1765 Pen and ink with black and white chalk on blue paper (823 X 432).

16 (Album No. 11) Ceiling Plan and elevations for the Lower Ante Room (Fig. 15). 1767

cWI 17673

Watermark: VG Lion with sword in paled enclosure PRO PATRIA Pen and ink with some pencil (334 X 413) It was necessary to create the lower ante-room

when the Jacobean staircase was removed from here and placed in the Great Hall (see has been

Nos '3 and 14)' The

since but the drawing shows ornaments which were not executed, e,g, the circular border in the ceiling and the overdoors. Six of the por- traits commissioned by John Lord Hobart in 1729 for the L~~~ ~ are shown hanging l ~ ~

~l in the new room in their distinctive ~~~~i~~ frames. They had been displaced from the Long Gallery as early as mid-1740s when the library of Sir Richard Ellys came to Blickling (see p. 76). This room was described as the Drinking Room in the inventory of 1793

(NNRO MC31338).

17 (Album No. 4) Design for a cornice for the  

Lower Ante-Room  

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767. % The full bigness.'

Pen and ink with brown wash (282 X 385)

This design was not followed.

18 (Album No. 11(1)) Ceiling plan and elev-  

ations for the Lower Ante-Room (Fig. 16). 1767  

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767'  

Verso: Half-scale detail and sketch of section  

of frieze of the room  

Watermark: LVG Fleur-de-lis and crown  

Recto: Pen and brown ink with some pencil  

Verso: Pen and brown ink with red chalk  

(535 x 390)

This is a simplified version of the scheme  

shown in No. 16 in so far as the overdoors are  

omitted but the ceiling is enriched by the  

elaborate coving and the central circle

reduced. One of the 1729 portraits is shown  

faintly in pencil on the west wall. The simple  

frieze design of triglyphs shown on the verso  

was executed rather than the neo-Jacobean  

masks and flourishes shown on the recto.  

19 (Album Nos iI (2)). Plan and elevations for the Upper Ante-Room, c. 1767

Scale: 218

Watermark: J WHATMAN fleur-de-lis, Crown GR   Pen and brown ink with some pencil (405 x 515)

The design of the ceiling is not shown because   the Jacobean plasterwork was retained. This   room had formed the upper part of the Jaco-   bean stair hall before the removal of the stair-   case in 1767 and it shown remodelled here as a   room for tapestries (indicated in pencil). The   overdoors were handled differently in the final   scheme.

20 (Album No. 4). Designfor a chimneypiecefor the Lower Ante-Room. 1767

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767'   Watermark: LVG Pen and ink with brown and red wash

(270 x 364) The dismantled chimneypiece is in store at   Blickling.

21 Drawing of chimneypiece and overmantel.

c. 1767

Watermark: GR. Lion and Britannia PRO PATRIA. Bell with SL Pen and brown ink with some pencilled details

(3 3 5 x 420) An extended version of the design illustrated   in the previous drawing.  

22 (Album No. 4). Design for a chimneypiece. 1767

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767'   Pen and brown ink (277 x 373) An alternative design for the chimneypiece in  

the Lower Ante-Room.  

23 (Album No. 4). Design for a Siena marble chimneypiece. 1767

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767' Watermark: IVILLEDARY Pen and ink with watercolour (387 X 547)

This drawing loosely resembles, in its use of materials and its scale, the Siena marble chimneypiece which John Ivory, provided in 1778 for the Peter the Great room (NNRO NR 314630). The Album reference is 'A design for the Chimney Piece to the State dressing Room -of the North Front -', i.e. the State Bedroom.

24 (Album No. 7). Ground plan for the north jont. I 767

Insc: 'Wm Ivory 1767' Watermark: IHS IVILLEDARY Pen and ink with some pencil and red wash

(385 x 555).

25 (Album No. 7). Ground- andjrst-jloor plans

for part of north jont. c. 1767

Watermark: GR with crown and wreath.

Lion and standard in belt inscribed 'LIBER-

TATE PATRIA' etc.

Pen and brown ink with pencil annotations (323 x 412) This plan and the previous one show what was

to become Lord Buckinghamshire's Organ Room on the ground floor with two adjacent small rooms. The future Peter the Great room is shown on the first floor.

26 Elevation ofthe northjontfirst$oor. 1768

Watermark: IHS IVILLEDARY Pen and brown ink (355 X 550) This closely resembles the final solution for the

north front with minor deviations notably in the fenestration of the gables. On 12 March 1768 Lord Buckinghamshire wrote 'On vient de faire un changement a l'egard du toit du nouveau batimen, cela doit etre couvert de plomb and tout a fait plat avec un ballustrade de pierre du cote de l'eau [it overlooks the lake], ce la une contera soixante pieces de plus, mais en revanche la Grande sale en sera moins sombre' (NNRO MC31284).

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICRLING HALL

27 Sectional drawing of north fiont roof: 1768

Insc: Pencilled guesses at identification Watermark: IHS IVILLEDARY Pen and brown ink (275 X 360) This shows a shallow pitched roof but in the

built version a gentle monopitch sloping towards the courtyard was adopted.

28 Plan of the west wing. 1760s

Insc: 'Whole extent of this is z3oU~/Depth

of the Foundations is 4 feet 9 lns:/height of the low low is 7 feet 9 lnches/height of the Cham- ber is 9 feet-/'

The rooms are identified as follows (north to south): 'Brewhouse, Store house for stone. . , Woodhouse, Glasiers Shop, Mortar House, Green House'.

Watermark: J WHATMAN GR. fleur-de-lis and crown Pen and ink (483 X 691)

29 (Album No. 51). Plans and elevations of a

timber obelisk. 1760s

Insc: '~x~lanator~/A.

The Plann 5 ft.square with/aaaa The four corner posts 8 inches square/b. The Newel1 in the Center of the Obelisk 8 inches square/ccc-The ~adders/~.The Triangular Plann 5 ft in Base whose Posts/and Newel1 for the Ladders are the same bigness to. thoselin the square Plann, but I presume the square Plann havindmore Room in the inside is more convenient./CD.-The sectional1 ElevationsIC. One side of the square with the Corner Posts and ~races/aa-TWO Oak s ores 6 feet in the Ground and 9 ft abovejg the Corners of the square/bb. The lower part of the Corner Posts Wch are like- wise 6ft in the Groundand of Oak to/cc&dd- The second and third Pr which are of ~irr/ff&~~

The Braces and rails/D. One side of the square with the Ladder/aa,bb&c. The spares, lower part of the corner posts and Newel1 all of them 6 feet intolthe Ground:- /ddd&c The ladder stares which are abt 2 inchs square bord one endinto the newel1 and the other end to bear upon the rami in^:-/EE. Hip sparrs to form the Top wch may be covered with four/falling shutters/~oft high from the Ground to the Top/'

Verso: Pencil scribbles for a columnar structure

Watermark: IV Medium: Pen and brown ink, some pencil (380 x 290)

30 Ground plan and elevations for a rectangular extension with a pedimented window and a railed parapet. 1760s

Endorsement: 'Mr. Ivory, Steward's Room'

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis and shield with bend Pen and ink (3 8I X 30)

This drawing is not readily identifiable with any part of the house today and in spite of its endorsement cannot be related to any other known plan of the Steward's Room. It is conceivably a ground-floor extension of one of the turrets.

31 (Album No. 20). Elevation and plan for an

orangery (Fig.13). C.1780 Insc: '60 foot 22 foot' (The dimensions of the central room on the ground plan)

Watermark: Crown, fleur-de-lis and G.R. Pen and brown ink with grey wash (427 x 534)

The seven-bay central block is flanked by two smaller rooms with side entrances. The sheet has been extended at the top by I 17 mm. on a line corresponding to the string-course above the windows. The heavy pedimented attic above has large blank window recesses. Visible beneath the overlap is the beginning of the previous design which mastered the junc- tion of the side porches and the higher level of the central section with a sweeping upward curve terminated at its lower end by a ball finial. The architrave above the windows was to have vertical flutes and the bases of urns show in the niches of the attic which was a screen wall to carry the rafters of a monopitch roof (see No. 32 and p. 80).

32 Plan and sectionfor the orangery roof (Fig.14). 1760-1 780

Insc: 'Green House Roof in ledgement' with various dimensions including scantling and length of timbers

Pen and brown ink with some pencil (529 x 663) This is the section and carpentry details for the

roof of No. 3 I. The smaller section refers to the side porches.

33 Sketch plan for the roojing over of the small

courtyard toform an entrance hall. 1785 Insc: 'A,A, 2 ornamental stoves X/B,B, col- onade the Height of the Gallery (13 ft)/in the   Hall, finished with/figures inbronze./^,^, horizontal ~eilindabout22 ft high/D,D, larger niche which finishes with the Doors/upper ornamental pannel of the Doors/about 6 ft. from the Centre, open for   light/a,a,a,a. A mock doors/)( the ornamental   Stove, may be pedestal &/antique Vase -the pedestal part containing the fire Grate, & the vase the tube to convey/smoke to the chim-   ney's in wall, b,b,/Doors 24 ft. dia.'  

Pen and ink (284 X 351) Held in NNRO (NRS 19180 33 E 7) This drawing is accompanied by a letter from   William Ivory to Lord Buckinghamshire dated 10January 1785 in which he writes.  

I remember so much of the appartments at Blickling, that I have ventured to mark out my first thoughts, on the subject which your Lordship has been pleased to mention to me, and as I presume they may convey to your Lordship an idea how I conceive the space of the present Court may be covered, orna- mented, lighted & warmed, I have enclosed them, -my poor father was a great assis- tant to me in perfecting these sort of ideas, and I am now very diffident of my own opinion of them -if anything of the kind is carried into execution, I could wish it might be entrusted to the care of an experienced person, as a great deal of its ornament & utility will depend on its being properly executed, which as it is out of the common track of their business, I should be doubtful of its success if entrusted to Country work- men; I hope your Lordship will pardon my presumption if I express to much on this subject:-as the post goes out from hence very early in the day it has not allowed me time to make a more perfect sketch, which I am afraid is too imperfect to send your Lordship but I was unwilling to wait

another post and I shall be very happy if it may produce any useful ideas of the subject.

PLANS BY JOSEPH BONOMI (1739-1808) FOR THE MAUSOLEUM AT BLICKLING

34 Sketch elevationfor the mausoleum of the 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire (Fig. 17). c. 1794

Pen and ink with pencil (245 x 202) An early idea for the mausoleum suggesting a   two-storey building with crypt for burials;   external steps up to a chapel and a pyramidal   roof.

35 Designfor the mausoleum (Fig. 18). c. 1794 Verso: calculations Pen and ink with pencil (190 x 202) An early scheme for the mausoleum as a two-  

storey building but beginning to approach the   final design. The pyramidal chapel is raised   above the burial crypt and its central door with   inclined jambs is reached by twin flights of   steps. The outline of a purer pyramidal form is   superimposed in pencil (see p. 81).  

36 Elevation and section for the mausoleum (Fig. 19). C. 1794

Verso: Sketches for the design of the interior and a wash drawing of an arcaded wall Watermark: Crown, shield, fleur-de-lis and

G.R.

Recto: Pencil

Verso: Pencil, pen and ink with grey wash (438 x 275) The recto is a further development of Nos 34

and 3 5 maintaining the idea of the two-storey structure but in this instance adopting the form of the Cestian pyramid as the first floor. The entrance is reached by steps and the sec- tion shows steps up to the windows (or doors) to either side. The burial chamber is located in the rusticated basement which masks an exca- vated crypt. Ideas for sarcophagi and coffin shelves are sketched out at the foot of the drawing.

The verso includes a sketch section indicat- ing the considerable depth of the proposed crypt with three-shelf coffin niches.

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

37 Plan of the mausoleum (Fig. 20). 1794

Scale: 1:48 Insc: 'Design of a Pyramidical Monument,   and a Sepulchral Chapel within, erecting now  

idthe Avenue of Blickling Park in Norfolk, to   the Memory of the late Earl of Buckingham.'   Signed: 'Joseph Bonomi, Architect, 17941

76, Great Titchfield Street'  

Watermark: Crown, shield and fleur-de-lis   and monogram   Pen and ink with wash (490 X 350) The plan as built.  

38 Elevation of sarcophagus for the mausoleum. 1794

Watermark: Britannia HiCrown 1794 Pencil (400 X 3I 7) The sarcophagus resembles the design that

was used for those of the two countesses but is considerably shorter and stands on a raised platform. The intention at this stage was evidently to use the space formed by the plat- form for the burial.

39 Design for the setting of the mausoleum.

c. '794

Insc: 'The Line for a sunk Fense round the ~uildind~evel

of the Ground in front of the ~uildin$~ottomof Sunk Fence' Watermark: Portal and Bridges

Pencil (257 X 485) The pyramid with railings at its base, as it was   built, but with an oval sunk outer fence and   railings which were not carried out.  

40 Plan and elevations for the setting of the mauso- leum. c. 1794

Watermark: Crown, shield, fleur-de-lis and

G.R. Pencil (602 X 490) The drawings show the mausoleum in its final  

state surrounded by an oval enclosure, railed   on the north and south flanks but with low   brick walls set in fosses to the east and west.   Symmetrical carriage drives approach from   east and west. This landscaping scheme was   not adopted.  

MISCELLANEOUS PLANS 1720-1 800

41 Ground- andjirst-jloorplans of a house with a two-storey co/umnar loggia. 1720s

Watermark: IV Pen and ink with bluelgrey wash (490 x 345) Held in NNRO (MC3/5 13). Possibly an early

idea for Marble Hill house begun for Henrietta Howard in 1724, which is similar in its general dimensions. The plan does, however, differ in the layout of its rooms and in other details.

42 William Ivory. Part elevation and plan of$rst

jloor of a town house. c. 1777 Insc: 'Elevation of Lodging and Dressing Rooms/Plan of Chamber ~loor/Paved Court'

Pen and ink with wash (422 X 233) Held in NNRO (NRS 19180 33E7). Carpen- ters were working at Lord Buckinghamshire's Bond Street house in 1777 under William Ivory's direction.

43 Plans of a rectangular town house with apoly- gonal bay. Late eighteenth century

Scale: 1/16

Verso: Pencilled elevations and plan of a   church with a columnar portico   Watermark: GR with crown   Pen and brown ink with some pencil

(290 X 200) The light pencil sketch plans on the verso show the church at Gunton built by Robert   Adam in 1769.  

44 Designfor a simplefanlight. c. 1800 Insc: 'This is drawn on 3/4 scale the door/being 81/2 feet & the light ~ft 6  

whicwmake 10 feet and will allow the door-   way/to be shortened 12 inches' Watermark: Britannia and Crown   Pen and ink with pencil (207 x 197) Possibly connected with one of the two service  

wings at Blickling.  

DRAWINGS BY HUMPHRY REPTON (17521818) AND JOHN ADEY REPTON (1775

I 860) FOR BLICKLING AND GUNTON

45 Humphry Repton. Lady's Cottage. After 1781

Insc: signed 'H. Repton delin'

Ink and watercolour with some body colour,   oval (295 x 355) (sight size)   There are no documents relating to the con-  

struction of Lady Buckinghamshire's cottage in the Great Wood other than a bill of 2 April 1781 in which a Mr Greenwood was paid f I. 5s 8d for thatching it (NNRO NRS 4625). When Francis La Rochefoucauld visited Blickling in 1784 he described the cottage, 'Leaving this edge of the park you plunge into a wood of magnificent forest trees. in which someone has fit together a cabin on the edge of a steep gully . .. built like a simple cottage, with straw seats, two prominent deal shelves all round the walls, furnished with all the pottery necessary for milk and tea . . . In front of the cabin, in an open space, some ruins have been put together, statues and urns set up and spread very effectively over a slight natural elevation. At one side is an apparently modern urn containinp. the ashes of one of Lord Buck-

0

inghamshire's children, as you read on an inscription of the pedestal. One of the sides of the pedestal is inscribed with some perfectly chosen lines of Milton.' (Norman Scarfe, A Frenchmen's Year in Suflolk (1988), pp. 200-04.)

Lord Buckinghamshire lost two infant sons in 1775 and 1776. Two verses on the death of John Lord Hobart (1773-75) to be carved on 'The first urn on the side next the Grass Walk' are recorded (NNRO MC31285) so the urn seen by La Rochefoucauld was no doubt for the second son.

Humphry Repton did not begin his career in landscape gardening until 1783 but at this time he was living nearby at Sustead. This drawing and No. 54 are not however purely topogra- phical but record two different ways ofdispos- ing the sculpture on the right hand side. The fountain came from Oxnead and was to remain here until John Adey Repton first removed it to the garden on the west side of the house (see No. 180). This very early draw- ing by Repton is much less broadly handled than his later work and in its treatment of foliage evidently derives from a study of engravings of old masters notably William Woollett's prints after Annibale Carracci.

Illustrated in Carter, Goode and Laurie, Humphry Repton Landscape Gardener, pl. 96.

46 Humphry Repton. Lady's Cottage (Fig 21). After 1781

Insc: 'H. Repton delin'

Pen and ink with monochrome wash (210 X 380) This drawing differs from No. 45 in a number

of respects in addition to technique and for- mat. The door of the cottage is open, display- ing the crockery shelves described by La Rochefoucauld and instead of a broken plinth the statue of Diana (now housed in the west wing) stands in the foreground. This is close to the actual arrangement given La Rochefou- cauld's description of 'Statues and urns'.

47 Humphry Repton (?).Plan ofa heating system for a greenhouse. 1790s (?)

Insc: 'A The Boiler/B a Section of the pipes under the front ~alk/~

a Double Row of Pipes 4 in.'

Pen and ink, wash with pencil (228 X 516) Scaling up from the given dimensions of the boiler (3 ft x 4 ft) this drawing suggests an installation for a green-house of 70ft x 22ft (excluding the rear projection). These measurements correspond to the depth but not the length of the existing orangery which is nearer 80 ft. None the less this could be an early idea for the heating of the orangery if, as seems likely, Repton was asked to design it (see p. 80).

48 Illustrated letterjom Humphry Repton to his sister Dorothy Adey.

Watermark: I 810

Pen and ink (225 x 370)

Dear Dee

This letter was begun as you will see for the

purpose ofsending by Post to Mary -but it

shall be directed to you because a thought

occurs about the trellis in explaining which

-I am insensibly led to explain something

else -which you may perhaps like to

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

explain to Lady Suffield as your own idea for I know by experience that the opinion of a professional man is only valuable in propor- tion as it is paid for -but you will recollect when I saw the flower garden at Blickling I said it would be possible to enlarge it without destroying the beautiful holly hedge .& only be making a break in the middle thus I observed that the middle of this hedge was more defective than the sides & therefore I would bodly cut it away & if two of the holleys coud be preserved as I have represented & trained or clipd into the shape hinted -this would become the Prosceninium to a fine Amtlhitheatre. in which the flower beds might bi ranged ;o radiate as I have shewn & perhaps a seat or alcove added but I love to see a Piedestal & Vase in garden scenery -and nothing could be more appropriate than such an amphitheatre sur- rouded by a clipt hedge over which the fine wood will appear like a scene in one of Watteau's paintings.

I often see trellis misunderstood -I mean the light sort used in England -for the French trellis is solid carpentry & only made as a frame to contain clipd trees of hedges but here we use only laths & if the plants are permitted to grow into them, they very soon pull them all to pieces -therefore (& indeed for the sake of ornament) the plants should always be tied to the more substan- tial posts or stakes & only a few playful twigs or tendrils permitted to stray along the trellis-thus for instance. Now this sketch will serve as a hint for your new paper grapery & also for the trellis seat at Blickling which looks very bald without creepers-& which I understood Miller had left unplanted but the creepers should pull the trellis in pieces.

Publick News -Captn. St. Leger of the I 5 Dragn. who dines with me to day hasjust said that a deputation from Russia was arrived this looks like peace there also-that Buonparte has declard he shall send over to congratulate the Prince immediately on his becoming King -that looks like peace here.

Has William written to Sr. Ths Leonard? On looking again at the sketches they are so badly done that ifyou cut them offthey may pass for your own beautiful performance Adieu once more HR

Endorsed 'To Mrs. Adey Aylsham Norfolk. HR Lady Suffield's Green House'.

The letter contains three drawings, one show-

ing the cutting away of the hedges, another

illustrating the plan of the Secret Garden as it

appears later in Wyatt's garden plan of 1871,

No. 178, but with the addition of an

amphitheatre-shaped planting pattern on the

east side. This radiating bedding plan

resembles the Reptons' proposed parterres at

Ashridge (I8I 3) and Beaudesert (I814) and in

view of his remarks about urns it is note-

worthy that the urn which stands just to the

north of the Secret Garden today is of the same

type as those shown on the Gunton green-

house drawing of 1816 (No. 50). The small

semicircular bed at the south end is described

as 'bog earth bed' and had already been made.

Held at NNRO (MC3 10013 466x4).

49 John Adey Repton. Plan ofpart of Gunton Hall showing Lady Sufield's Dressing Room.

c. 1816

Insc: Various annotations and measurements Pen and ink with pencil (243 X 180) James Wyatt enlarged Gunton Hall for Har-

bord Harbord shortly after 1770 and this drawing shows proposed alterations by Repton.

50 Humphry andJohn Adey Repton. Elevation of an orangery set in a formal garden at Gunton Park (Fig. 22). 1816

Insc: 'A Design for a Greenhouse at Gunton in Norfolk as proposed by H. &J.A. Repton 1816.'

Verso: Pencil sketch of plant stand

Pen and ink with watercolour (185 x 255)

See Nos 51-54.

51 Humphry and John Adey Repton. Ground- plan and details of windowsfor the Gunton oran- gery. 1816

Scale: I in. :10 ft for the ground plan,

I in. : 5 ft for the windows Insc: 'For the Right Hon.ble: Lord Suffield at Gunton/Ground plan of the Greenhouse proposed by H and J.A. Repton/This is sup- posed to be about 40 feet long and may be extended if required/to SO feet with five windows -or 60 feet with seven.'

Pen and ink with wash (185 x 255) The windows are swung open on central verti- cal pivots and the greenhouse is to be heated by pipes beneath the floor and a flue in the back wall. There are sheds at the rear and a central niche intended for a 'seat or aviary'.

52 Humphry and John Adey Repton. Plan and

elevations of a trellised niche with seat and aviary for the Gunton orangery. 1816

Endorsed: Mr. Repton's plan Watermark: Prince of Wales Feathers and

*MJL 1811

Pen and ink, pencil with red and grey wash

(349 x 221)

53 John Adey Repton. Design for aj-lower basket on a tall stand. 1816-25

Insc: 'Plan of the 1ron basketl~lan of the post (if executedin oak)/A 11/2 by I/B I by %/to halve intoleach other1A.A. Horizontal ~ars/1'/4 inch by 3/4 thick/B.B. Crossed ~ars/?/4 of an inch by 2/s1'/1ron Posts Full size/'

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis Pen and ink (410 X 250) This is probably the detailed design for the

plant stands shown in the watercolour of the Gunton Greenhouse (see Nos SC-52). The annotations show that the stand could be made with either oak or iron posts.

54 Humphry and John Adey Reptow. Elevation of

a Lodge at Gunton Park (Fig. 23). 1816 Insc: 'Design for altering the Lodge at the Entrance of Gunton Park -proposed by H &

J.A. Repton, 1816'   Watermark: RUSE AND TURNERS 1813   Pen and ink with watercolour (185 X 255) The drawing shows the Reptons' intended  

alterations to James Wyatt's Hanworth Lodge   of c. 1770. This had been and remains the  

principal entrance to Gunton Park and takes the form of a pedimented archway with accommodation in the flanking wings. In this drawing Wyatt's columns are removed and the arch glazed to form the window of a large room which has to take the place of the entrance, while the old windows become doors. The round-headed window design devised to fit the arch was used again by the Reptons for their Gunton Orangery design of the same year (see Nos 50 and 51). It appears that Humphry Repton had suggested a new and more impressive route into the park, per- haps at the southern end towards which the horse and cart at the right of the drawing is heading (see No. 141). John Phibbs points out that the Ordnance Survey drawing (Sheet No. 243) shows the new southern drive to have been extant in 1816.

55 Humphry Repton. Sketch for a Peach House and description of a vine house. c. 1816

Scale: 1/4 in. to I ft Insc: 'N. 1/1n the annexed Plan [missing] the Front Wall, which is to be only two Feet high/above the Border, consists of Piers only; which at their Bases are to standone Foot distant from each other: but at the surface of the Ground, the/Bricks of each pier are to project four Inches, so that they will be only/four Inches distinct form each other above the Ground -The Piers to/be one Brick deep. The Vines are to be planted in the inter- stices ccccland will protrude their Roots exter- nally and internally, being Planted just in/the Centre of the wall, so as to be with equal ease bent in, or wholly/out of the -House, a Block of wood being placed on the outside whenlthey are in, and on the inside when they are out: bv which means the/~tems cannot be affected by the severest ~rAst, when in the House; norlinjured by the heat of the House, if it be used for other purposes, in Winter.

Sketch for a Peach House/ Neither the Peach nor Nectarine, in any one Instance which has come under my/obser- vation, ever attain their full and perfect Flav- our, unless the Sun shine upon thedwithout the intervention of Glass, during their last Swelling and ripening. In this Plan/the Lights slide down to the Block of Wood B which

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL IOI

receives and supports the ends/of them; and the top of the lights is drawn down to A, by which Means the fruit on/the Back Wall where the Trees are to be trained, will receive the full ~nfluence/ofthe sun whenever it Shines. Along an horizontal Trellis in the line clany Grape not later than the Black Hambrough will ripen; but I wouldrather recommend the Sweet=Water and Chasselas. -One Flue (dirnini~hin$~radually the Thickness of the Bricks which compose it) will warm a/House of Sixty or Eighty Feet, as no Return will be wanted. '

Pen and ink (370 x 225) The authoritative tone of the annotations sug-   gests Humphry Repton, as does the hand-   writing. The paper is stamped BATH.  

56 Humphry and John Adey Repton. Roofplan, jloor plan and side elevation of a hot house at

Blickling. c. 1816

Endorsement: 'Hot House at Blickling'   Watermark: STACEY WISE 1816   Pen and ink (398 X 3 I I) This is similar to the ideas for a-peach house  

explained in No. 55. The dimensions also correspond.

DRAWINGS BY JOHN ADEY REPTON FOR BLICKLING HALL

57 Elevation ofa house with steppedgables and tall neo-Tudor chimney-stacks. c. 1820

Pen and ink with pencil (277 X 3 57)

This rather clumsy drawing, together with Nos 58 and 59 illustrate a neo-Tudor design which may well be an early idea for the remodelling of William Ivory's west front.

J. A. Repton was interested in Tudor buildings and most of the terracotta details shown here are to be found in East Barsham Manor House which Repton published with the Society of Antiquaries in I 808.

58 Drawings of neo-Tudor chimneys and an oriel window, c. 1820

Pen and ink (138 x 205)

59 Elevation of nzo-Tudor gables and chimneys.

c. 1820

Watermark: J. WHATMAN TURKEY 18 ... Pen and ink with pencil (I 3 8 X 205)

60 Sketches of octagonal star-topped chimneys.

c. 1819 Watermark: R. BARNARD 1819   Pencil (372 x 228) Probably connected with Nos 57-59.  

61 Sketch elevation of the west jont (Fig. 24)

c. 1821

Watermark: JOHN POOLE & SON LONDON 1820 Pen and ink (3 81 X 471) This sketch represents the working out of the

pencilled alterations which were made to Ivory's elevation drawing (No. I I) by a later hand resu sum ably Repton's) and the total effect is close to the front as we see it today in spite of the extensive stabilization of the outer skin undertaken by William Burn in 1864.

62 Plan and elevation of a jive-stack chimney.

c. 1821 Scale: I in. :I ft Verso: Plan of moulded brick for the above,

full scale Watermark: Fleur-de-lis Pen and ink with pencil (398 X 253) This design was intended for Repton's

remodelling of the west front. Square chim- neys of this kind are shown in No. 61. An annotation on the verso notes, 'One of the Bricks moulded for the Square Chimnies' which suggests that others were involved. In the event it seems that octagonal chimneys were used throughout.

63 John Adey Repton (?).Sketchesfor the arcade.

c. 1822 Verso: More of the same with profile heads Watermark: C. WILMOTT 1822 Pencil (23 I x 274)

These drawings, indicate the general design and position of the arcade. Althoughnai've and poorly executed they may predate J. A. Rep- ton's drawings of the same feature. Given that they are on a different paper from the rest of the drawings it could be that they are Lady Suffield's sketches.

64 Preliminary elevation of east arcade. c. 1823 Verso: Sketch elevation of balustrading to front entrance with plan and elevations of new

parapet for the tower of Blickling parish church Watermark: HEALE MILLS I 822 Pen and ink with pencil (404 x 505) The verso drawings relate to Nos 75 and 90.

65 Elevation and plan of west side of colonnade linking house to east wing. 1823

Insc: Extensive annotations Verso: Elevation of east side of arcade Watermark: HEALE MILLS I 822 Pen and ink with wash and pencil (398 x 484) The annotations show that the arcade had

movable shutters, held by bolts, for the winter. as indicated in ~~~t~~~~ note on the verso of NO. 5.

66 Planfor the arcade linking the east wing to the house. c. 1823

Insc: Various annotations including, with reference to the north wall, '3 Arches like the East Front/-- with Plain shutters and iron rails'

Pen and ink with wash and pencil (384 x 209)

67 Working drawing of head of shutters for east

arcade. c. 1823 Insc: 'The arch and Upper Shutter/(Scale)   One Half of the Full Size'  

Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822   Pen and ink with pencil (504 x 403) Repton notes 'The Archivolt mouldings to be  

the same as the Door under the South East   Tower' i.e. the masonry arch of the Jacobean   door to the dining room.  

68 Working detail ofshutters on east arcade. 1823

I ~ q-he~ ~ : stone

shuttersland plinth/One

of the/Fu11 Size' Verso: Section of the above watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822 Pen and ink with pencil (505 x 405)

69 Elevation ofpart of east arcade. c. 1823 Endorsed: 'Door Way Eastern Arcade' Watermark: 1823 with Britannia Pen and ink, pencil with pink & grey wash

(320 x 402)

70 Design for keystone in arches of east arcade.

c. 1823 Scale: Full size   Insc: 'for the Ornament over the Keystone of  

the Arch'   Watermark: 823 Pen and ink with pencil and wash (329 X 221)

71 Elevation of strapwork cresting and obelisks with section of strapwork and plan of obelisk.

c. 1823 Scale: 2 in. :I ft Pen and ink with pencil (282 X 430) Evidently intended to surmount one of the

bays of the new arcade but not carried out.

72 Elevation of north gable of east wing. c. 1823 Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822   Pen and ink with wash and some pencil

(395 x 244) Repton's proposed three-light central window   to the first floor was not built.  

73 Elevation, plan and section of door and archi- trave. c. 1823

Scale: I in. :I ft Verso: Partly erased pencil draft of letter (illegible)

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

Ink wash and pencil (386 x 260)

Connected with the north colonnade of the east wing (see No. 74).

74 Section of door and jamb. 1822-23

Scale: Full size

Endorsement: 'Door and Gable of old Arcade to the North' Watermark: HEALE MILLS I 822 Pen, ink, pencil and wash The endorsement refers to the three arches in

the north gable of the east wing shown in Repton's dFawing for its alterationU(see Nos 72 and 73).

75 Elevation of neo-jacobean gate Screen with ornamentedpiers. (Fig. 30) c. 1822 Verso: Part of rear elevation Watermark: HEALE MILLS I 822

Pen and ink with pencil (195 x 943) A proposal for the main entrance from the   Aylsham Road. Alternative designs for gate   piers are shown. See No. 64 verso.  

76 john Adey Repton (?).Sketch plan for the realignment of the road in jont of the Hall. Early nineteenth century

Verso: 'Mr. Repton'  

Watermark: (partial) Fleur-de-lis   Pen and ink with some pencil (238 x 195)

The plan shows the line of a proposed new   fence across the northern end of Pond Mea-   dow as well as an adjustment to the width of   the road where it passes the churchyard. The   handwriting does not seem to be that of John   Adey Repton but the proposals are relevant to   No. 75. Probably a note addressed to Repton.  

77 Elevation of clock tower (Fig. 25). c.1828

Watermark: J. WHATMAN 1828 Pen and ink with grey wash (589 x 450) The design as built. It represents a rectangular

recladding of the octagonal eighteenth-century cupola. The S for Suffield in the main entablature did not prove acceptable to the Patron and was by a neO-Jacobean mask.

78 Sketchesfor ornaments including a coat ofarms. Early nineteenth century

Watermark: Britannia and Crown Pen and ink with pencil (204 x 327)

BY JOHN ADEY AT BLICKLING HALL

79 Perspective of a neodacobean table, c. 1819 Watermark: (partial) J WHATMAN Pencil with grey and brown wash (253 X 354) =his table was designed for one ofthe niches in

the Great Hall and its top was to be extended back (according to No. 81) to fit the curving wall.

80 Perspective sketch of neo-jacobean table.

c. 1819 Verso: Scribbles for garden path layouts Watermark: Partial Prince of Wales Fea

thers, monogram and 819 Pencil (I I 3 X I 83) The paper on which most of the other details

of this table are drawn is watermarked 181 I but this perspective has the partial date -819 which must imply that the drawings were done eight years later.

81 Plan of a neo-Jacobean side table. c. 1819 Scale: 2 in. :I ft Watermark: R. BARNARD 1811 Pen and ink with pencil (233 X 385)

82 Elevation of a neozJacobean table

Scale: 2 in. :I ft Verso: Side elevation of same

watermark: R. Barnard 181I Pen and ink with pencil (244 x 408)

83 Working drawings for neo-Jacobean table.

c. 1819

Watermark: R BARNARD 1811 with crown shield and horn Pen and ink with pencil (1017 x 628)

84 Elevation of a neodacobean settle (Fig. 26). 1819

Watermark: partial Brown and grey wash over pencil (270 x 309) This settle appears in early photographs of the

Great Hall and probably left the house in 1930s. It is similar to a gothic settle designed by Repton in 1805 for Barningham Hall. In spite of the watermark on No. 86, this is likely to have been drawn no earlier than 1819. The colouring and technique is similar to No. 80.

85 Front and side elevations of neodacobean settle.

c. 1819 Scale: 2 in. : I ft Endorsed: 'Settle in Hall'   Watermark: Crown, shield with horn, inter-  

lace RB   Pen and ink with pencil (259 x 408)

86 Elevation ofone bay of the neodacobean settle with part section. c. 1819 Scale: Full scale Verso: Part outline of the same Watermark: R. BARNARD 181 I Pen and ink with pencil (1425 X 422) Three sheets glued together.

87 Elevation, plan and section ofa neo-Jacobean corner cupboard. c. 1823 Scale: I in. :I ft

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis Pen and ink with wash (368 x 195) Flaps show alternative designs for the grad-

uated quadrant-shaped shelves. The more complex design was enlarged for the working drawings (Nos 88 and 89).

88 Working drawings for a neo-Jacobean corner cupboard. c. 1823 Scale: Full scale Verso: More of the same Watermark: 1823 Britannia & Crown Pen and ink with pencil (330 X 417)

89 Working drawingsfor details of a neojacobean corner cupboard. c. 1823

Scale: Full scale Verso: More working details of the same Watermark: 1823 with Britannia and Crown Pen and ink with pencil (330 X 412)

DRAWINGS BY JOHN ADEY REPTON FOR   BLICKLING CHURCH  

90 Drawing to show the tower of Blickling Parish Church before and after the addition of a new parapet (Figs 31 and 32). c. 1823

Watermark: G & R TURNER

Pencil (143 x 128)

The drawing makes use of a hinged flap (see No. 64 verso).

91 Sketch with measurementsfor the rood screen in

Blickling church. c. 1825 Insc: (verso) 'Mr. Bone, Enamel Painter about 14 Berners St, Oxford St'

Verso: Various pencil sketches Pen and ink with pencil (185 x 225) The sketch (recto) indicates the box pews of

the nave and the verso includes some gothic details and a triangular plant stand six feet high (seeNos 53 and 119).

92 Sketch of tracery and cap of a polygonal

chimney. c. 1825 Verso: Drawing for an unidentified struc-   ture with measurements  

Watermark: Britannia and Crown   Pen and ink with pencil (205 X 321) The tracery is a sketch for the rood screen.  

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

93 Elevation of tracery on the Blickling church vood screen showing part ofcentral arch. (Fig. 33)

c. 1825 Scale: '12 scale Pen, ink and wash with pencil setting out  (472 x 664)

94 Detail of tracery for rood screen in Blickling  church. c. 1825 Scale: Full scale  Watermark: I & I DEWDNEY 1825  Pen and ink (grey and red) with pencil (404 x 503)

95 Detail of traceryfor the vood screen in Blickling  church. c. 1825 Scale: Full scale  Insc: 'The ~racer~l~ull  

Size' Watermark: I & I DEWDNEY 1825  Pen and ink (grey and red) with pencil

(402 x 505)

96 Section of cresting and mullionfor rood screen in  Blickling church. 1825  

Scale: Full scale   Insc: 'N.B. The Tracery to be inserted into  

the ~unnion/but not to be fastened by Nails or   Glue' Watermark: I & I DEWDNEY 1825 large  

fleur-de-lis Pen and ink with pencil (410 x 500)

97 Sketch elevation of a reredos. c. 1820 Verso: Small sketch of a female figure  

Pen and ink with pencil (185 x 227?) The drawing shows a central panel with the   Holy Dove and IHS flanked by texts. It is   probably an idea for the chancel of Blickling   church.

DRAWINGS BY JOHN ADEY REPTON FOR BLICKLING GARDEN AND PARK

98 John Adey Repton (?). Sketches for urns.

c. 1814 -c. 1821 Verso: Another of the same  Watermark: Incomplete -JOHN  

Pen and ink with pencil (I I 8 X I 86) These amateurish sketches and those in Nos   gp-104 are possibly by Lady Suffield.  

99 John Adey Repfon (?).Sketch ofurn. c. 1814-

c. 1821 Watermark: HENRY SALM[ON]. 18 14  Pen and ink with pencil (144 X I 39)

loo John Adey Repton (?). Sketches of urns.

c. 1814 -c. 1821 Verso: More of the same  Watermark: Crown and shield with Horn  

interlacedJJ and EG below Pen and ink with pencil (376 X 228)

101 John Adey Repton (7). Sketches ofurns and   windows. c. 1814 -c. 1821 Verso: Sketch for trellising with urns   Pen and ink with pencil (I 14 x 180)

102 Sketchesfor trellising and a window. c. 1821 Insc: 'box' and 'hazle'   Verso: Sketches for urns   Pen and ink with pencil (114 x 180) On mourning notepaper with a black border.  

103 Sketch for trellising. 1820s

Watermark: Incomplete section of crown,   shield and horn   Pencil (126 X 210)

~04Maltese cross with sketchesforjower beds and trellising. 1820s

Verso: Sketch design for a bookcase  Pen and ink with pencil (229 X 283)

105 Sketches for trellis to jame distant view of temple and for circular raised bed of brickwork incorporating nichesfor plant pots. 1820s

Pen and ink with pencil and wash (237 X 199) A female figure in a stylish hat, presumably intended to represent Lady Suffield, stands next to the raised bed.

106 Sketch for balustraded double flight steps incorporating urns and bust. c. 1820

Pen and ink with pencil (186 x 225) This may be an early idea for the terracing of   the east garden.  

107 Sketches of trellising and of cupboards in the same material for the display of plants in pots.

c. 1820

Verso: Scribble of path layout with calculations Pen and ink (I I 5 x I 85)

108 Sketch for a Gothic trellis. c. 1820 Verso: Sketches of rosettes Watermark: Partial GAT 18 Pen and ink with pencil (I 16 x 182)

109 Design for a circular trellis enclosure. 1822- 23

Scale: I in. : I ft and I in: 5 ft

Insc: 'The lower Rail B to be the samelas A.   but to be reversed.'   Watermark: Fleur-de-lis Pen and ink with pencil with watercolour  

(394 x 210) See No. I 10.

110 Elevation of a trellis pedestal and post.

c. 1822-23 Scale: Full scale Verso: Plan of same Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822 Pen and ink with pencil (505 X 403)

I I I Design for a garden bench with folding back.

c. 1822 Scale: I in. :I ft with full scale details Watermark: HEALE MILLS I 822 Pen and ink with pencil (498 X 396)

112 Plan, elevation and working detail of a trel- lised seat built round a tree (Fig. 29). c. 1822 Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822 Pen and ink with pencil and wash (395 x 495)

"3 Sketches for the Hardenburg Basket and the arcade between the house and the east wing. 1823

Endorsement: '2 Benches and Door' Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822 Pen and ink with pencil (403 X 303) See Nos I 14 and I I 5.

114 Plans and elevations of a reztangular trellised walk incorporating a bench and greenhouse with sketches of the latter. 1823

Verso: Sketch for the Hardenburg Basket

-

and of trellis.   Watermark: J. WHATMAN   Pen and ink with pencil (337 X 504) This is in effect the plan for an enclosed garden   54ftby 35ft.  

115 A letterjomjohn Adey Repton to the Dow- ager Lady SuJield illustrated with designs for a Hardenburg basket. ~1st October 1823

Scale: I in. :I ft

Verso: Elevation and half plan of basket

Insc: (Recto): 'Harestreet near Romford October 21.1823 Madam Upon my return to Harestreet I lose no time in forwarding to your Ladyship the enclosed drawings for theHardenburg basket & hope the Carpenter will be able to comprehend them. The little sketch is meant to represent a group of Roses. The border round the basket [I] have suposed to contain beds for small flowers and exceeding 3 or 4 inches above the ground. The beds are divided into 10 or 15 compartments by dwarf box

I have the honour to be, Madam

Your Ladyship's Obedient

Humble Servant

J.A. Repton'. Insc: (verso): 'Cross Post/~o the/Dowager

Lady Suffield/Blickling ~all/~~lsham/ Norfolk' Postmark 'Romford 12'

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

Watermark: W. THOMAS 1822 Pen and ink with wash (recto) (230 X 380) Repton prepared designs for Prince Harden-

burg at Neu Hardenburg near Frankfurt-an- der-Oder in 1822. This drawing is illustrated in G. Carter, P. Goode and K. Laurie, Humphry Repton Landscape Gardener(1982), pl. SO,

116 Elevations and plan for the trellised seat

(Fig. 27). c. 1823 Endorsement: 'Dowr. Lady Suffield, Blickling'

Watermark: 1823 and Britannia   Pen and ink (3 18 X 398) This pedimented arbour is similar in design to  

the rustic version shown in No. I I 8.

117 Rough sketchesfor seats and a shelter. 1820s

Verso: Plant basket and balustrading Pen and ink with pencil (187 X 230) The sketch of a rustic shelter with domed roof

and swags made of fir cones is very similar to Repton's menagerie at Woburn (1805-10) and resembles No. I I 8 in this respect.

118 Design for a classical trellised arbour made of logs and ornamented with fir cones. (Fig.28)

c. 1824 Scale: I in.:zft Insc: A The trunk of a tree with/the bark on,

from which a piece/is sawed off 2 inches thick/ The middle to be cut out/leaving a rim 3 inches/thick./~he height of the pedirnent/z11 I of the span/^.^. an inch deal board with nails inserted at/regular distances to receive the small Cones/The trellis C.C. to be of hazel twigs/l 2'3 inch diameter and to halvelint0 each other %inch -/T~us/D.D.D. Wirelwith Cones-/The bracket to appear/as a natural branch/of a tree/The Roof to be coveredwith Canvas or, ~ith/boards pitched/' The design on the verso is similar to the recto but more closely related to No. 122. In a vignette in his Designs for the Pavilion 1808 Repton showed the development of Grecian architecture from its earliest origins in build- ings made of tree trunks through to Doric. See No. 117.

119 Plans and elevations for three plant stands with a sketch ofan ornarnentedparapet, c. 1825

Watermark: J. GREEN AND SON 1825 Pen and ink with pencil (228 X 378) The pencil sketch shows an early idea for the

parapet of the church tower (see Nos 64 verso and go). The plant stands resemble the earlier ones designed for the garden at Gunton in No. 53 (but see also No. 91).

120 Elevation ofagreenhouse in trelliswork. Ajer 1826 Watermark: J. GREEN & SON 1826

Pen and ink with pencil (368 x 226) Repton designed very similar trelliswork greenhouses for Sheringham Park in I 812 and Endsleigh in 1814. See No. I 14 for compar- able ideas sketched out in 1823.

121 Plan of road layout and entrance to the park. 1820s

Insc: 'Plantation of Oaks at AA with thorns the inside at BB with Lilacs Gelder Roses/Syringas -Siberian Crabs & c/CCC Spanish ChestnutslDDD Maples, Hornbeams. Thorns &c/EEE Oaks and Spanish Chestnuts Copses/of Hornbeams & hazels -with Birch for Nursery/F Groups of Oaks/~. Group of Birch thorns and a few Oaks &/Maples as treesl~he new Gates at HH to be placed at right/angles with the Road'

Verso: Design for another trellised arbour to Pen and ink with wash (257 x 415)be made out of squared timber The site of these improvements is at the point Watermark: J.WHATMAN TURKEY where the lane from Blickling School meets MILL 1824

the present B1354 at the western edge of the Pen and ink with pencil and wash (330 x 405) hamlet of Park Gates.

122 Elevation and plan for a lap-boarded parkgate and fence. 1820s

Watermark: Crown shield with horn and the letters R & B interlaced

Pen and ink with wash and pencil (258 x 415) What maybe the plan of this gate is shown in the entrance to the park in No. 121.

DRAWINGS BY JOHN ADEY REPTON FOR COTTAGES AT BLICKLING

123 Elevation and section of thegable of a thatched cottage with details ofa window. 1825

Scale: y2 : I ft Verso: Working details of the window and barge board

Watermark: Fleur-de-lis and monogramme 1825

Pen and ink with pencil (398 x 501) This is a design for the remodelling of an existing cottage. Repton notes on the gable 'Old wall of plaster to be taken down and new brickwork to be finished with the Lower part to be faced with old bricks & dark mortar to correspond', [with surviving brick wall beneath]. He introduces a three-light oak mul- lioned window and a latticed attic window to give distinction to the gable end. This is prob- ably No. 5 Park Gates.

124 Perspective drawing of a cottage ornCe (No. lo8 Blickling Road, Oulton) (Fig. 36). 1820s

Watermark: TURNER Grey wash (101 x 154)

125 Perspective of a cottage ornke (No. 108 Blickling Road, Oulton). 1820s Watermark: C & R Grey wash (098 x 156) This shows the cottage in No. 124.

126 Groundplan of an L-shaped cottage (No. 108 Blickling Road, Oulton). 1820s

Scale: I in :I o ft Watermark: G & R TURNER Pen and ink with pencil (225 X 150)

127 Design for the alteration of Keeper's Lodge

(Figs 34 and 35). c. 1819-22 Insc: 'To Lady Suffield with Mr. J.A./Rep- ton's respectful compliments/~he Keeper's ~od~e/'

Watermark: 1819 and Crown and Prince of Wales Feathers

Grey wash (I 14 x 25 I) By means of a flap Repton shows the three- storey building before improvement -with weather boarded lean-to and fruit trees against its gable end-and afterwards with a triple- arched trellised loggia (through which the trees are allowed to grow), a five-light mul- lioned oriel with brattished or crenellated cres- ting and ornamental barge boards. A very similar design was used by Repton for Glie- nicke near Potsdam for Prince Hardenburg in 1822. Michael Seiler Entwick Lungsgerschichte des Landschaftgartens Klein-Glienicke 1796 1883 (unpublished dissertation, Hochschule fur bildende Kunste, Hamburg, 1986).

128 Design of strapwork window heads for Keeper's Lodge. 1822

Insc: 'Ornament to the Lower windowlof the Keeper's Lodge'

Verso: Drawing entitled 'Upper windowlto the Keeper's Lodge'

Watermark: HEALE MILLS 1822

Pen and ink with pencil (405 X 504) Annotations on the verso indicate that these designs were for the alteration of existing windows.

129 Plan for a school room and teacher's house.

c. 18.20

Pen and ink with wash (156 x 226) The plan of the larger building implies a public   use and a path from the door at the rear leads to   the house.  

130 Plans of cottages. 1820s

Pen and ink with wash (144 X 223) On the left side of the sheet are plans for a semi-detached pair of cottages on an H-plan

with a large central chimney stack and a com- munal porch. On the right-hand side are two possible treatments for a cottage. One version shows the cottage on its own as a one-up and one-down and the other (flap) shows the same reduced in scale with a second cottage added at the left. For a perspective of the left-hand plan see No. 13 I and for the right No. 132.

131 Perspective of a pair of cottages (Fig. 37). 1820s

Pen and ink with watercolour (108 X 152)

132 Perpective of an estate cottage with pap indicating optional wing to provide a second dwell- ing. 1820s

Pen and ink with watercolour (107 x 150)

133 Designfor a brickgable with coping bricks and kneelers. 1 820s

Watermark: Britannia and Crown Pen and black & blue ink with pencil (3 34 x 207)

Houses with similar gables are shown in Nos I 3 I and I 32. There is a pencil drawing of a coping brick of the same type as that used here in No. 137 which is watermarked 1827.

134 Pencil sketchfor a watercolour ofthe hamlet of

Park Gater. c. 1827 Verso: Survey and measurements of house shown in the centre of the sketch on recto

Pencil with some ink (227 X 367)

This sheet reveals some of Repton's working methods. The recto is a very hasty sketch in which he notes colour and texture details thus 'Blue Brown' pantiles 'Scarlet Red' walls 'Thatch' and 'Grass'. Details of the fence are jotted down very roughly in the margin and it is clear that his watercolour perspectives were heavily reliant on memory. The measured survey on the verso is equally elementary and beneath is the beginning of an abandoned sketch which promises a rather better compo- sition than the recto. These drawings show the cottages that are thesubject ofNos 135-37, i.e. Nos 3 and 4 Park Gates.

135 Design for a pergola for Nos 3 and 4 Park Gates. c. 1827

Scale: I :30 Watermark: LANE & Co 1827 with Britan-   nia and Crown  

Pen and ink with pencil and yellow wash   (334 x 405) See also Nos I 36 and 137.  

136 Detail of oak trellis post and bracketfor Nos3 and 4 Park Gates. c. 1827

Scale: Full scale Insc: (Verso): 'Further details of post and rail'

Watermark: LANE AND CO 1827 Pen and ink with pencil (604 x 524) This is a detail for No. 141.

137 Elevation and part plan of Nos 3 and 4 Park Gater showing addition ofapergola and trellis with sketches of details. c. 1827

Scale: I in :5 ft Verso: Alternative trellis design for the same house with sketches of details including one of

the legs of an early seventeenth-century table, and a coping brick Watermark: LANE & Co 1827 with Britan-

nia & Crown Pen and ink with pencil and yellow wash (408 x 306) The table whose leg was sketched on the verso is now in the kitchen at Blickling Hall.

138 Plan and garden layout for a cottage with a rustic columnar verandah. 1820s (?)

Verso: Pencil notes and sketch of a rosette

Watermark: Stamped SIMS'S EXCHANGE, BATH Pen and ink with wash and pencil (185 x 224) The cottage is surrounded by a small oval

garden and has its own parterre of beds and gravel. It may be a scheme for the enlargement and improvement of Lady's Cottage whose surviving joinery details (in store at Blickling) resemble John Adey Repton's work. See Nos 45 and 46.

OTHER DRAWINGS BY JOHN ADEY REPTON

139 Indecipherable sketch with measurements

Watermark: Part of crown and shield with horn Pencil (190 x I 14)

140 Perspective of Muskau Castle, Silesia (Fig. 39). 1822

Watercolour and pencil (300 x 405) This is a proposal for the remodelling of the castle for Prince Ptickler-Muskau. It is the only visual record of Repton's most important continental commission and has not hitherto been recognized. Repton's job was to provide designs for a new bridge and a scheme for remodelling the castle itself. His bridge design makes use of motifs borrowed from the archi- tecture of Blickling.. whereas the ornate shaped gables (whichuare versions of one illus- trated in Vredeman de VriesArchitectura (Antwerp, 1565)~ p. 146) were copied from a house of 1642 in Berlin which Repton illus- trated in 'Observations upon some Ancient buildings in Prussia'(Archaeologia, XXI (I 828),

p. I 58, pl. XVI). The ornate coping for the four corner towers (those in the foreground were already truncated) resembles the late sixteenth-century towers of Longford Castle, Wiltshire. Repton worked in Wiltshire with his father and with Nash at Corsham and Longleat around 1800. Repton's ideas for gar- dening at Muskau are hinted at in the fore- ground but the landscape is generalized; witness the very English church in the back- ground. Repton got as far as destroying the existing bridge before he was replaced by Karl Friederich Schinkel whose neo-classical remodelling scheme was also rejected. But Schinkel was allowed to build a ramp up to the castle in place of the earlier bridge. A memory of Repton's ideas did however live on in the eventual remodelling of the castle by Wetzel and Strasser in 1863-66. Repton's work at Muskau is fully described in Manfred Uhlitz 'John Adey Repton und das Muskauer Sch- loss', Mitteilungen der Piickler Gesellschafi (Berlin, 1989). I am grateful to Dr Michael Seiler for confirming this identification.

141 Design for walls andgates at the entrance to a park, c. 1820

Pen and ink with wash (287 x 440)

The reserved classicism of this design makes it

unlikely as a scheme for Blickling. It could be a

proposal for Gunton (see No. 54) or even

Muskau.

VICTORIAN DRAWINGS FOR BLICKING HALL

142 Elevation of thefireplace in the Long Gallery

(Fig. I). 1849 Insc: 'Blickling Library 20th Nov 18~91 Marble Chimney

Pencil (181 X 262) This is the only record of the eighteenth- century marble chimneypiece which was introduced into the Long Gallery with the arrival of the library in c.1745. The design precisely reproduces a drawing of a fireplace at Coleshill published by John Vardy in 1744.

143 William Burn (1 789--1870). Ground and first-floor plans of the northern half of the house.

1865

Insc: 'Blickling Hall/New Staircase Lift etc. to Principal Apartments16, Stratton street/ 12 May 1865

Pen and ink with watercolour (470 X 255) The plans show how, by breaking through the wall on the great stairs at the central landing, it would be possible to take a new flight of stairs up to a new first-floor passage running along the east side of the rear courtyard which would give access to the Peter the Great Room (labelled 'Drawing Room' on the plan). Two schemes are shown, by means of flaps, for the incorporation of a lift in the north-east corner of the rear courtyard. The other annotations document the proposed uses of the rooms on both floors. The Lothians' bedroom was on the east front flanked by two dressing rooms. Lady Lothian's sitting room was in the north- east corner. Lord Lothian's sitting room was the old Organ Room in the centre of the north front which communicated via an ante-room with the Factor's Room. On the west side, running south, were the nursery, governess's

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL I I I

room, school room, still room and women's

sitting room. Various other minor alterations

-

were suggested, but none of the pro

posed in this plan was to be carried into effect except the ground-floor corridor on the east side of the rear courtyard and some minor partitioning. Burn's letter of 13 May refers to these proposals (NNRO MC3126311 I).

144 Letter jom William Burn to Lady Lothian

incorporatingplan of westjontfirstfloor. 1865

Pen and ink with pencil (253 x 200)

Dated 25 January 1865. Shows still room,

women's sitting room, housekeeper's room

and store room. Held in NNRO (MC312631

9).

145 Letter +om William Burn to Lady Lothian

incorporating plan of Still Room. 1865

Pen and ink (252 X 202)

Dated 30 January 1865. Held in NNRO

(MC31263120).

146 William Burn. Plan of theserving room show-

ing proposalsforfittings. 1865 (?)

Scale: I in. : 8 ft Insc: 'Blickling~all/Marquis of lothiad~ot table Design/Dinner Service Room/Dresser with drawers, Clarets under; neither ofwhich can be dispenced with/Hot table/~able/China and glass closet'

Pen and ink with wash (184 x 224) Held in NNRO (MC315 16).

147 William Burn. Plans elevation and section of the south end of the west wing. 1865

Insc: 'Blickling Hall -Rough Plan &/Sec- tion of Brew House for Messrs Cartysl guidance 6 Stratton Street, 16/~ay 1865' [The section and elevation] '3 June 1865' [the two plans].

Pencil (3 I 3 x 423)

148 William Burn. Plan and section of Brew- house. c. 1865 Scale: '/4 in. : I ft

insc: 'Blickling ~all/Plan and ~ection/oq Brewhouse' Endorsement: 'No. 3 Plan of Brew House'  

3")

Pen and ink with watercolour (412 The position of the different tuns and boilers  together with the galleries and stairs is shown.  

149 William Burn. A plan, transverse and longi- tudinal section for the alteration of Lime Tree Walk. 1865

Scale: I in. :16 ft   Insc: Dated 'October I ~th1865' Endorsement: 'No. 4 Proposed plan for the  

Lime Tree road'   Pen and ink with watercolour (243 X 661) A scheme to improve the drainage of the road  

surface and to segregate the footpath from the   service road.  

150 Robert Bartram. Sketch planfor the alteration ofthe north end of the east wing indicating drainage.

1869 Verso: abandoned sketch plan   Pencil (327 X 527) See Nos I 51-53,

151 Robert Bartram. Plan east wing and stable

yard. 1869 Insc: 'Blickling Hall stables 81 c/BedRoom Plan, Mens Bedroom, Bedroom/Sitting Room bedroom/Ground Plan Mr. Wells office Tradesman'sl~ntrance Stable. ..Mess Room/ harness Room. Carriage Entrance from/Stable Yardcarriage Houses Stable YardThis to be used for extra carriages & c' Signed 'Robert Bartrad~ylsham Dec 1869'

Endorsed: 'Blickling stables 1869. Sundry/Plans, Cottages, Stables, Gardens/ Hall offices &c'

Watermark: J WHATMAN 1865 Pencil with pen and ink endorsements (656 x 928) Dennis Wells took over as 'outdoor' agent in I 866.

152 Robert Bartram. Perspective ofstalls and loose

boxes. December 1869 Insc: 'Blicking Hall Stables Stalls and Boxes/   Robert Bartram Aylsham/Dec 1869'  

Pencil (292 x 363) The pillars of the divisions are decorated with   L's for Lothian. A horse is shown in one of the   stalls.

153 Robert Bartram. Part ground plan of the east   wing with loose boxes. 1869 Pencil (188 X 675) Held in NNRO (MC3lg17 516x4).  

154 Robert Bartram. Plan and elevation of a store   room (location unknown). 1877 Insc: 'R. Bartram/~~lsham/~eb~  

1877' Pencil and watercolour (452 X 443) The drawing shows a room with a simple

Jacobean fireplace fitted up with shelves. It is probably a first- or third-floor room in the west front.

155 Maurice B. Adams. Plan and elevations for extension to house WCs in rear courtyard.

Insc: 'Blickling Hall, ~orfolk/The most Honble. the Dowager Marchioness of Lothiaq@R0PO~~D ALTERATIONS/ MAURICE B. ADAMS A.R.I.B.A. ARCHT/KIRKCOTE BEDFORD PARK CHISWIC~FEB16 1884'

Pen, ink and coloured wash (527 X 757) Adams contrived his new waterclosets in a double-storey brick gabled structure in the corner of the rear courtyard carefully emulat- ing the details of the Jacobean closet tower in the diagonally opposite corner.

156 Maurice B. Adams. Perspective of the south jont. 1885

Ins': 'BLICKLING HALL

THE SEAT OF THE DOWAGER MAR- CHIONESS OF LOTHIAN. ALTERED AND RESTORED BY MAURICE B. ADAMS ARCHITECT 1885-6 DELT MAURICE B. ADAMS 1885'

Ink and wash with some body colour (sight  

size: 480 X 688) The drawing shows the main facade with Lady   Lothian carrying an oriental parasol exercising   her three dogs. Adams recorded his work at   Blickling in an article in the RIBA _lournal, third series, Val, 6.

DRAWINGS OF DECORATION AND FURNISHINGS AT BLICKLING AND ELSEWHERE

157 Thomas Ivory (?).Design for a bookcase (?) (Fig. 2), mid-eighteenth century

Pen and brown ink with pencil (184 X 226) This curious drawing may possibly relate to the book cases which were installed in the Long Gallery in c. 1745 (see p. 76).

158 Elevation of a plasterjieze. Early nineteenth century

Pen and ink (go x I 87)

159 Sketches of ceiling decoration and jieze. Early nineteenth century

Insc: 'Plaister frieze about 6 incheslwide. Gilt moulding two differendshades of colour/ If Mr. Proper wishes for somethin$more made out I will copy the/styles and corners for him exactly/I suspect you mean them by the friezelwhich is only the (verso) composition pardunder the ceiling -/This is a very rough sketch, but haveldone it in a hurry not know- ing what it/is wanted for/~ow are you today/God bless you dear Aunt Ca'[indistinct]

Watermark: partial MOTT I1 Pen and ink (I80 X I I 5)

160 Design for an iron stove. c. 1821 Scale: 1'/2in.:1 ft

Insc: 'a cast. Black Pedestal Stove/with descending ~l~~/g~~,~~p

Watermark: J WHATMAN 1821 Pen and ink with watercolour and pencil (300 x 242)

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

161 Design for an iron stove, c. 1821 Scale: 1% in. :I ft Insc: 'a Black cast. GothicRedestal Stove of an Octangular Fordand

descending

flue/&jo.oo/Warm air discharges through the   brass Patera at Top'   Pen and ink with watercolour and pencil (295 x 227)

162 Design for a bookcase. c. 1815-20 Pen and ink with pencil (I 15 x 184) A tripartite bookcase of three shelves divided  

by tapering pilasters with masks at the top and   a wire lattice guard rail.  

163 Lady Sufield. Invitation card with designfor

a cloak press. c. 1814 Verso: 'Mr. & Mrs Richard ~odrelyrequest the Honour oqLord & Lady Suffield's/Com-

any at Dinner on wednesday/August 23rd at 52 past 5 o clockj~all Aug' 17th' over which is sketched a design for curtains

Pen and ink with some pencil (78 x I 17) The piece of furniture on the recto can be identified by its measurements with No. 164 and 165. Inscriptions mention other pieces including dressing table, writing table and wash stand. The Jodrells lived at Salle Park near Cawston, Norfolk.

164 Sketch for a cloak press. c. 1814

Endorsed: 'The Lady Suffield/Measures of furniture/' Watermark: partial Horn and Shield   Pen and ink (I 83 x I 14) See Nos 153 and 155.  

165 Lady Sufield (?).Design for a cloak press incorporating drawers and central cupboard.

c. 1814 Insc: 'Cloak Press' Watermark: 1814 Pen and ink with pencil (186 x 233) The inscriptions refer to dimensions and to

other pieces of furniture including dressing table, dressing glass and bidet. The inscription

on the verso refers to coal baskets and a hot house (see Nos 55 and 56).

166 Designs for cupboard and chest of drawers.   c, 1815-zo Pencil (I 87 X 23 I)  

The design can be related to two pieces surviv- ing in the house.

167 Lady Sufield (?). Sketches for two beds. 181 5-20

Verso: calculations Watermark: Fleur-de-lis in shield (partial)   Pen and ink with pencil (233 X 180) Both are single beds and one is of a neo-  

classical type with a drapery canopy, gathered   to a central point.  

168 Designs for curtains with continuous drapery.

c. 1815-20 Watermark: CFS? intertwined Pen and ink with pencil (239 X 197)

169 Detail ofpelmet of valance. c. 181 5-20 Pen and ink with pencil (370 x 225)

170 Designs for Greek-revival pelmets and book- cases. c. 181 5-20 Pen and ink with wash (231 X 375)

171 Perspective ofa kitchen range. c. 1820--30

Verso: Crude sketch of castellated Gothick Mansion. Pen and ink with ink wash and some pencil Verso: Pencil (160 X 225) The range is encompassed within a shallow

rusticated arch.

172 Earl. Design for a Gothic chair. Early nine- teenth century

Endorsement: 'Chairs Earl' Pencil (I 50 x I 14)

A side chair to go with the arm chair shown in No. 174 'Earl' may be the Elden Earl who made the inventory of Blickling's contents in 1793 (NNRO MC31338 447x8). On ~fanuary 1801 236 3s. od. was paid to Messrs Earl, Cabinet Makers (NNRO MC31340).

173 Earl. Design for a Gothic chair. Early nine-

teenth century

Pencil (182 X 121)

A side chair with gabled back and latticed

horizontal splat and cusped seat rails.

174 Designfor a Gothic armchair. c. 1820-30

Insc: 'Gothic Hall Chair'

Watercolour and pencil (150 x 10s)

175 Cut-out folding diagram of a butlers tray with

hinged sides. c. 1820-30

Verso: Various annotations and notes of

measurements

Watermark: Britannia and crown

(167 x 147) Evidently a design for a tray that turns into a   table top by folding down the sides which are   hinged and pierced to make handles. It mea-   sures 3oin. x2s1/2in. with sides 5 in. high.  

176 Paul Fisher G Co. Decorative scheme. 1860s

Scale: '/2 in. : I ft

Insc: 'Design for decoration of Drawing Room/Marchioness of Lothiar@aul Fisher & Co/33 Southampton St. Strand'

Pen and ink with pencil, wash, body colour and metallic paint (648 X 489)

A brightly coloured high-Victorian scheme. The two elevations indicate alternative treat- ments of dado, wall and frieze and also picking out door panels and architraves. The fireplace is provided with curtains that match the rich green portit-re of the double doors. A com- mercial scheme related to the ideas of Owen Jones and the Audsleys which is hard to recon- cile with any room at Blickling. Probably an

idea for the Lothians' London house.

VICTORIAN PLANS FOR THE GARDEN AT BLICKLING

177 Robert Bartram. Plans elevations and sections for glass houses. 1869

Insc: 'Blickling Hall Gardens, Plans, Elev- ation/and Section for 4 Houses/' Signed: 'Robert Bartram/Aylsham Dec 1869'

Pencil. The sheet is in two pieces whose over-

all measurement is (473 X 661) The annotations give the use of the houses including Cucumber house, Melon House and Vine House (cf. NNRO MC31159 466x8).

178 Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt (1820-1877). Plan of thegardens. c. 1871

Scale: '/4 in. :I o ft

Insc: 'BLICKLING HALL' Verso: Various pencilled notes in foreign languages, mostly illegible

Watermark: J. WHATMAN 1869 Pen and ink with pencil and ink wash (991 X 654) The existing arrangement of the garden prior

to 1871 is shown in red ink; buildings are indicated in grey wash and the proposals in pencil. Much of what is shown was subse- quently carried out but Wyatt's proposals for the remodelling of the east end of the lake with a parapet wall and central steps down to a landing stage, and for the creation of a grand flight of steps down into the moat on the eastern side was never carried out. A fountain is shown as an existing feature on the west side of the house. It is almost certainly the Oxnead fountain shown in Humphry Repton's draw- ings of Lady's cottage (Nos 45 and 46). The fountain which now occupies this site was purchased from Austin and Seeley in 1877 (NNRO MC31226). It is referred to in the bill as 'I Rokeby Shell & 3 legs of Rock'. In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1844 (p. 82) John Adey Repton contibuted an article on Oxnead which began 'I enclose a sketch of the fountain formerly at Oxnead, which had for more than half a century been half concealed among the rubbish in Blickling Park; it was lately restored, and placed in the flower garden adjoining Blickling Hall'. As part of Wyatt's

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL I 15

work the fountain was moved to the centre of the new parterre.

179 Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt. Elevation and

perspective of terracing in east garden. c. 1870

Insc: 'BLICKLING HALLPROPOSED

TERRACES & c/16 M.D.W.'

Watermark: J. WHATMANII 869 Pencil (626 X 981) One of two possible treatments for the par-

terre walls proposing in this case circular niches, between piers. The final scheme was simpler than either.

180 Sir Matthew Digby. Elevations and perspec- tive of parterre terracing in east garden. c. 1870 183 Boulton G Paul. Perspective of glass houses 1886

Insc: 'PERSPECTIVE:VIEW:OF:PITS/' Signed: 'Boulton & Paul/Horticultural Builders/Norwich Nov I 886 A. W.'

Pencil with ink wash (330 X 450)

MISCELLANEOUS DRAWINGS FOR ESTATE COTTAGES AND FARMHOUSES

184 Groundplan of a farm house. Eighteenth century

Insc: 'Kitchen I3 ft by I 3 ft/Parlour I 3 ft by   I 3 ft/~ack ~itchen/Dair~/Cellar'   Pen and ink (I 77 X 232)

185 Elevations, plans and perspective offour cot-

tages ornCes (recto and verso). 1809

Insc: 'BLICKLING ~~~~/2~'/1ndistinctl~

signed lower left: 'Angel D. -' Watermark: J. wHATMANII 869   Pencil (63 I X 976) An alternative treatment for the walls to

No. 179 omitting piers and circular niches,   with plain parapet to the central steps, and   decorative panels flanking the arched seats.  

181 Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt. Plan, elevation and section of steps on the east side of the parterre. 1871

Scale: '/2 in. : I ft Insc: 'BLICKLING HALLICENTRE STEPS EAST SIDE OF EAST GARDEN/   No 9 Tracedbent ~artram/~eb~  

20 1871' Watermark: J. WHATMAN11 870 Pencil (663 X 1009) As built.

182 Plan of a parterre. c. 1870-73 Pen and ink with watercolour (272 X 360) A Victorian scheme for the parterre on the east

side of the house focused on the fountain which stands in the centre of the garden now. This design is, however, different from Lady Lothian's scheme which was actually carried out and is recorded in early photographs.

Insc: 'SWH/Blicklin$Nov. 3rd 1809/' and   annotations Watermark: Ruse and Turners I 807

Pen and ink with wash (224 X 368) Amateur drawings showing rustic classical   cottages with thatched and slated roofs.  

186 First-Joor plan ofa house. Early nineteenth century

Insc: 'Chamber Plan'   Watermark: Crown and shield with bend   Pen and ink with wash (223 X 341) Held in NNRO (NRS 19180 3367).  

187 Plans of a terrace offour cottages with bake-   house at rear. c. 1812 Insc: verso: 'Plans of poor Houses'   Watermark: J RUMP I 812 Pencil and wash with pen and ink annotations   (185 x 301)

188 Elevations of cottages. Early nineteenth century

Verso: Sketch of two adjoining cottages Watermark: Britannia and crown 1804 J CORBETT

Pencil with pen and ink annotations. Verso: Pen and ink with pencil (3 17 x 400)

These drawings are very crude and in the case of the recto difficult to interpret.

189 Richard Burnell. Letter concerning a Farm-

house at Hunworth with plan. 1836

Insc: 'Rough plan of the round lo or oqthe Farmhouse. Hunworth occupied/by Mrs. Pegg -1836'

Annotations to the plan: 'Dairy 15 feet x 9'/2 feet;/Back kitchen 15 feet x 12 feetpassage; Pantry; Storehouse; Parlour 16ft x 15ft', Closet; Chimney; Staircase; Entry; Kitchen/   13 feet by I 5 feet; Keeping Room 9 feet/~o.I Coalhouse; 2 Tub house; 3 cellerk 4 Wash- house; 5 Fowls house. NB the abovelare leantoos and distinguished by being shaded - Chambers 'I over parlour I over Kitchen 2 over Keeping room I over pantry I over bake-   house I over dairy 7 altogether'

Watermark: Writing paper stamped SUPERFINE SATIN  

Pen and ink (23 o X 370) The plan shows a typical Norfolk farmhouse   of the lobby entry type. The letter gives room   heights.

190 G. E. Burrell. Plan and west elevation ofthe farmhouse at Mill Farm, Itteringham, c. 1838

Pen and ink with watercolour (484 X 441) In the plan the house is indicated in brown wash while the neat rectangular yard of out- houses is coloured orange. 1; ~elli's directory between 1836 and 1853 George E. Burrell is listed variously as builder, auctioneer and cabinet maker in Aylsham, He was to be paid for cabinet-making work at Blickling Hall in 1861 when he supplied suits of 'white enamel' furniture for ghdrooms and in 186263 (NNRo MC~i1~2

and MC311~9 466x7)

191 G.E.Burrell. Designsfor chimneys, window andjOnt door, Mill Farm, Itteringham, c. 1838 Scale: I in. : I ft

Insc: signed 'G. E. Burrell' Verso: Across the chimneys : 'Not Worked   to'

Pen and ink (439 X 533)

192 G. E. Burrell. Plan and elevation ofa house.

c. 1838 Watermark: J. WHATMAN1183 8 Pen and ink with watercolour, body colour

and varnish (532 X 430) This design is similar in many respects to Mill Farm Itteringham (Nos 190, 191) but has greater architectural pretensions. On the front and rear elevation two bays break forward with framing pilasters. The twin chimney stacks are panelled and the front door has a neo-Tudor fanlight. There are several houses in Aylsham which have comparable simple pilasters with torus moulds at the top, e.g. at the corner of Church Terrace and in Penfold Street.

193 G. E. Burrell. Section and plan of a house showing carpenters' work including Jooring, roof structure, stud partitions and staircase, c. 1838

Insc: 'The scantlings requisite for the draw- ings/specified/, followed by a list signed 'G.E. Burrell Aylsham'

Watermark: J. WHATMAN 1838 Pen and ink (438 X 542) These drawings are for the house shown in

No. 192.

194 First-jloor plan of a cottage. Late nineteeth century

Scale: '/2 in. : I ft Watermark: SCHOOL OF ARTS Pencil (178 X 223)

'95 Plans and roof section for the enlargement of a 'Offageat Ingworth. Late nineteenth century

Scale: '14 in. :I ft Insc: 'Ingworth Cottage9

Pencil and crayon (315 x )g7)

196 Ground andfirstzfloor plan ofcottage at Ing- worth and elevation of lean-to. Late nineteenth century.

Insc: 'Ingworth' Verso: Elevation of a cottage   Pencil and red crayon (329 X 534)

117

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

The extension is lndlcated in red. It houses a Insc: 'PAIR OF LABOURERS COT-staircase, a kitchen and a bedroom. TAGES/Richd ~rmstron$18 WESTBOURNE PARK VILLAS LONDON W' Pen and ink (410 X 538)

197 Plans of a pair of semi-detached cottages,

The date 1877 appears on the plaque next to

Nos 27, 28 Silvergate. Late nineteenth century.

the right-hand front door.

Scale:

in. : I ft

'1'4

Insc: 'Silvergate Cottages Nos 27, 28' Pencil and crayon (526 X 440)

198 Plans, elevations and sectionsJor the enlarge- ment oja rottage at Hunworth. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'Late Bayfield Hungworth'   Watermark: SCHOOLOFARTS/J.S. &. CO Pencil and crayon (3 82 X 558) Asmall cottage with dormers in the attic and a  

barn, under one roof, is extensively rebuilt to   double the size of the accommodation.  

199 Plan and elevations -fir a cottage (So. 107 Blickling Road, Oulton). 1865

Insc: 'Blickling June I 8651Plan for Labourers   Cottage.' Pen and ink with wash (374 X 495) Held in NNRO (MC3 I 84 14131646x5).  

zoo Elevation ofa pair ofcottages with steep roofs and ornate Tudor chimneys, with sketches of a fireplace and joinery details. 1860-70 (?)

Pencil (665 X 410) Held in NNRO (MC~/SIS/SI~X~).  

201 Elevations and plans oj- a terrace of three cottages. 1872

Pencil with ink annotations (462 X 342) The cottages have mullioned windows. Two plaques between the first-floor windows con- tain interlaced Ls for Lothian and the date 1872.

202 Richard Armstrong. Plan and elevationsfor a pair oj cottages in the Queen Anne style. 1877

Scale: ?hin. : I ft

203 Richard Armstrong. Plans and perspective)r a pair of cottages in the Old English style. c. 1877

Scale: '/8 in. : I ft Insc: 'PAIR OF LABOURERS COT- TAGESIRichd arms ton$^8 WEST- BOURNE PARK vILLAs/LoNDON W'

Pen and ink with red wash (362 x 414) The skilful perspective shows an attractive pair of cottages with steep roofs, tile-hung   gables and tall chimneys.  

204 _I. H. Tuddenham. Ground plan of two rot- taps at Ingworth. 1906 Signed 'J. H. ~uddenham/~~lsham

May I906'

Pen and ink with wash (304 X 457) Enclosed with this plan is a specification for Broughton's cottage Itteringham and Ingworth cottages signed 'J. H. Tuddenham. 17th May 1906'. In all three cases the work involves the improvement or enlargement of existing buildings. Kelly's Directory for 1868 records the partnership of Burrell and Tuddenham operating from Burgh Road, Aylsham as builders, upholsterers and cabinet makers.

NINETEENTH-CENTURY PLANS FOR AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

20j Sketch of thatched cattle shed. Early nine- teenth century

Insc: 'The Lady SuffieldjTrou h for ~ a ~ / Bin for oil cake150 feet each way gft Pillars to the spring of the rooq12 ft. wide74 timbers Fall in the shed/Roof rises in a little more than the/angle of 45/~he Yard is only the square of the/Angle. Paved with Brick &-raised/a little in the centre with a Gutterlround it to carry off the water.' 'It would be better without this railed/along the bottom as it is in the way/of sweeping out the dirt'

Endorsed: 'The Lady Suffield'   Watermark: W TURNER AND SON  

Pen and ink (225 x 365) The annotation 'The yard is only the square of   the Angle' implies that this was intended to be   an L-shaped building of two 50 ft ranges.  

206 Plans and elevations and detail of portable stables. Early nineteenth century

Insc: 'Section across the stablel~lan of poar-   tabel stabeysection throw the stabel/~he cill   on which it is found may/rest on pieces of   timber or on a/coarse of BricksIThe Shed   ought to be 12 feet widelinstead of 10 The roof   is Deal painted and the pieces/slip into Grooves over which a rib oqdeal is screwed to   keep the wet out/No. I is a Drawing of the   Woodwerk which/forms the sides of the Shed[illegible]with Frames/and supported by   Iron Loops'  

Endorsed: 'poartabel stabel'   Watermark: Fleur-de-lis Pen and ink (185 X 387) In 1784 Francis La Rochefoucauld was keen to  

see a portable barn at Blickling (Norman   Scarfe, A Frenchman's Year in Suflolk . . ., P 203).  

207 Elevation of a granary. Early nineteenth century

Pen and ink with pencil (183 x 222) This structure stands on 2ft gin. brick piers with large caps to exclude rats. The lower wall 3 ft 6 in. was to be boarded and above this were on each face of what must have been a square building three 'Lettice' windows. The roof is pyramidal with a central louvred ventilator and a ball finial.

208 Plan showing alterations at Spratts Green Farm. Mid-nineteenth century

Scale: '/s in. : I ft Insc: 'Pro osed Plan/For New Premises At  

the SprattsT~reen Farm occupied by Mr. J. Soame' Endorsed: 'Plans Mr. Soame's Farm/Also

old Map of Crostwick/Property.D.W.'  

Watermark: oRIGINAL/TuRKEY

MILLSBENT

Pen and ink, wash with some pencil (675 x 465) The plan indicates in red a new cow shed, calf

shed and piggeries.

209 Plan ofthefarm yard at Spratts Green Farm. Mid-nineteenth century

Scale: ?hin. : I ft Pen and ink with colour washes and some pencil (668 X 508)

210 Design for a simple iron gate and fencing. Early nineteenth century

Insc: 'Gates/Mr. Petres'   Verso: Drawing of a smaller gate   Pen and ink with pencil (240 X 406)

211 Robert Bartram. Drawing of roof truss for Bullock Shed. 1870

Scale: I in.:^ ft Insc: 'Building 108 feet long by 25 ft

widelout to nut/Section of ~oou1nch scalel~obt. Bartram'   Endorsed: 'Case's Bullock [illegible] roof/G  

Seaman Windows' 'Plan of Cottage/ (Nesfield)' Watermark: J WHATMANIr870

Pencil (474 X 678) This drawing has been used as wrapper for   others and the intriguing annotation suggests   that William Eden Nesfield was consulted by   the Lothians in or around 1870. There is a   Bedford Lemere photograph at Blickling of   Nesfield's Lodge in Hyde Park. It would not,   however, be easy to attribute any of the sur-   viving drawings to him.  

212 Robert Bartram. Section of lean-to. 1883

Scale: I in. : I ft

Insc: 'Leanto ~hed/at End of Barn/~r. Cooks Blicklin$Inch Scale, Robt Bartram'   Pencil (384 X 549) Folded in with this plan is a short letter, date  

25 June 1883 from Bartram to Dennis Wells.  

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AT BLICKLING HALL

213 Plan ofa stable andgig house. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'G. R. Seaman. Stable'

Verso: Another plan of same

Pencil (recto: crayon) (237 X 442)

214 Plan and elevation of loose boxes and open- jonted shed. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'Mr Geo Seaman Oulton'   Watermark: SCHOOL OF ARTS JS & CO Pencil (3 80 X 3 3 5)   Held in NNRO (MC31350).  

215 Plan and elevation of cattleshed. Late nine- teenth century

Insc: 'Mr. Seamans boxes'

Watermark: Partial SCHOOL OF ARTS   etc. Pencil and crayon (300 X 157)

216 Ground planfor cart horse stables. Late nine- teenth century

Scale: 78 in. :I ft

Insc: 'Proposed Plan of a Cart Horse Stables   at A. B. Boyds Esq.'   Watermark: SCHOOL OF ARTS J.S. & Co Pencil (369 X 756) A schedule of materials is attached.  

217 Planfor cattleshed. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'Back wall/passage for feed cows/mangers for cowes/~ow House/~ouse Farerain for Cows/Passage way paved with bricks'

Verso: 'Cow HQuse/Home premises/~nd view odCow house.' Section of building and numerous calculations

Watermark: MILTON/FINE Pen and ink with pencil (203 x 326) The annotations on the recto describe the plan

which closely resembles a surviving calf-fattening house at Park Farm. See also No. 21;

218 Plan and elevation detail of afarmyard with two open-jonted sheds. Late nineteenth century

Watermark: SCHOOL OF ARTS/J. S. & Co Pencil (3 82 x 5 5 I)

219 Plan for a cow house at Manor Farm, Itteringham. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'ltteringham/~anorFarm'

Watermark: SCHOOL OF ARTS/J.S. & Co. Pencil (244 X 286)

220 Plan and elevationfor cattleyard enclosed by a barn and open jonted sheds at Manor Farm, Itteringham. Late nineteenth century

Scale: '/s in. : I ft Insc: 'Itteringham Manor Farm'   Watermark: SCHOOLOF ARTS/J.S. & Co Pencil (190 x 555)

221 Planfor a stable andgighouse. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'Sir/This is the same as the old Build-

ings now are and the same size'   Watermark: Pyramid with PYRAMID SS & Co Ltd  

Pencil (178 x 223)

PLANS FOR STODY LODGE

222 William Ivory (?). Ground- and first-jloor plans of Stody Lodge with proposalfor extension.

Late eighteenth century

Watermark: Crown and shield with fleur- de-lis LVG IV

and ink with grey wash (3 74 469) Held in NNRO (MC315 14 5 16x4) (see p. 80).

223 Plans and elevation of Stody Lodge, indicating proposed extension. c. 1846

Endorsed: The Lodge

Watermark: J. WHATMAN 184~ Pen and ink with some pencil (490 x 429)

224 Ground- andjirst-floorplanr of Stody Lodge.

c. 1846 Scale: '/s in. : I ft Endorsed: 'Stody Lodge' Pen and ink with pencil annotations (393 x 386)

225 Plan and elevation for single-storey exiension to Stody Lodge. Late nineteenth century

Insc: 'Stody Lodge/Proposed Extension'  

Pencil and crayon (265 X 478) This indicates a further extension to the one   shown in No. 50. It was to provide a drawing   room.

226 Plan and elevation of carriage house for Stody Hall. 1899

Scale: '/4 in. :I ft Insc: 'STODY ~ALL/Pro~osed Carriage ~ouse/~

899' Pencil with pen and red ink (368 x 250)

PLANS FOR THE RESTORATION OF ERPINGHAM CHURCH

227 Robert Bartram. Plan, interior and exterior elevations for west doors at Erpingham church. 1867

Scale: I in. : I ft Insc: 'ERPINGHAM CHURC~ELE

VATION OFPEST

DOORS/INCH SCALE/Rob ~artram/Aylsham/~

867' Watermark: J. WHATMAN 1862 Pencil (456 X 365) The design shows double-leaved doors with Perpendicular panelling with stop-chamfered bracing on the reverse.

228 Robert Bartram. Plan and elevation offontfor Erpingham church. 1867

Insc: 'ERPINGHAM CHURCH'   Pencil (470 x 322) The font is octagonal with moulded base and  

corbelling. Single encircled quatrefoils decor-   ate each face of the bowl. The cover, with   cruciform foliate iron straps and central ring,   is also shown.  

229 Robert Bartram. Drawingfor agable crossfor Erpingham church. 1867

Scale: %

Insc: 'Elevation of Stone Cross/Half full size/Original cross 3 ft 3" high/2ft 6" across arms/'

Pencil (574 X 448)

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